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Vocabulary

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Vocabulary

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  1. Vocabulary • Civilization • Surplus • Artisan • Pictogram • Scribe • City-state • Empire • Cultural Diffusion WH C2 PO1

  2. Beginnings of Civilization The Rise of Cities WH C2 PO1

  3. Objective • Describe development of early prehistoric people, their agriculture and settlements WH C2 PO1

  4. Pyramids • Pyramid building required a society more organized and advanced than Neolithic farmers. WH C2 PO1

  5. The Rise of Cities • A civilization is a complex, highly organized social order. • Cities are a main feature of a civilization • As farmers produced surplus of crops in the fertile land along rivers. • Populations began to expand • Farming Villages began to grow into cities WH C2 PO1

  6. River Valley Civilizations • Fertile Crescent • Tigris & Euphrates Rivers in Iraq • Nile River in Egypt WH C2 PO1

  7. River Valley Civilizations • Indus River in India • Yellow River in China WH C2 PO1

  8. River Valley Civilizations • Conditions favored farming • Flood waters spread silt which keeps land fertile. • Animals flocked to river for water – providing food • Rivers provided a regular water source and means of transportation. WH C2 PO1

  9. River Valley Civilizations • Rivers posed challenges • Had to control flooding and channel water to fields. • Cooperation was needed and required leadership and organized government. • Ancient cities required high walls for protection. WH C2 PO1

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  11. Features of Civilization • Cities • Well-organized central governments • Complex religions • Job specialization • Social classes • Arts & architecture • Public works • Writing WH C2 PO1

  12. Organized Government • To provide for a growing population – new forms of government appeared to provide organization for projects • Warrior kings emerged as political leaders – setting themselves up as hereditary rulers • Claiming this right from their god • Government became more complex as rulers issued laws, collected taxes, and prepared defenses. WH C2 PO1

  13. Complex Religions • Most ancient people were polytheistic. • People created gods that dealt with natural forces and human activities • Sun, rivers, sea, etc • Birth, trade, or war • Built temples and designed elaborate ceremonies to please the gods. WH C2 PO1

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  15. Job Specialization • Individuals began to specialize in certain jobs • Artisans, or skilled craftsmen, developed pottery, metalworking, • Construction – bricklayers built city walls • Soldiers – defended the city • Merchants – sold goods and • Teachers, entertainers, …….. WH C2 PO1

  16. Social Classes • Social organization became complex • People ranked according to jobs • Social Hierarchy • Priests & Nobles • Wealthy merchants & artisans • Peasant farmers • Slaves • Debt bondage • Prisoners of war WH C2 PO1

  17. Arts and Architecture • Expressed the beliefs and values of the people that created them. • Temples and palaces dominated the scenery • Skilled workers built and decorated massive buildings. • Some still can be seen today WH C2 PO1

  18. Public Works • Projects ordered built by rulers • Roads • Bridges • Aqueducts • defensive walls WH C2 PO1

  19. Writing • A critical new skill was the art of writing • Used to record harvest amounts, weather info, rituals & prayers • Earliest writing was in the form of pictograms, simple drawings that looked like objects they represented. WH C2 PO1

  20. Writing • As writing became more complex, only specially trained scribes learned to read and write. • Scribes were educated in special temple schools and worked for priest, rulers and merchants. WH C2 PO1

  21. Civilizations and Change • Ancient civilizations changed in many ways over the centuries. • Causes • Physical environment shifts • Interactions among people WH C2 PO1

  22. Environmental Changes • Early people dependent upon the physical environment. • Changes with water and other natural resources could be devastating. • Over farming could deplete soil – crops would fail • Survivors would move away. • Natural disasters – volcanoes, hurricanes, floods could destroy entire cities. WH C2 PO1

  23. Interactions among people • Cultural diffusion – the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another. • Occurs through migration, trade, and warfare • People would share and adapt customs. • Trade introduced new goods or better methods of production. • Warfare – victors forced their way of life upon conquered people. WH C2 PO1

  24. Homework Questions • How did the conditions in some river valleys favor the rise of early civilizations? • How were governments and religion closely linked in early civilizations? • What are the three causes of cultural change? • Give three examples of cultural diffusion in today's world. WH C2 PO1