Scope Management Chapter 5
Learning Goals • Understand the importance of scope management for project success. • Construct a Work Breakdown Structure for a project. • Develop a Responsibility Assignment Matrix for a project. • Describe the roles of changes and configuration management in assessing project scope
Project Scope Project scope is everything about a project – work content as well as expected outcomes, which should include - activities to be performed - resources consumed - end product result - quality standard expected Scope management is the function of controlling a project in terms of its goals and objectives and consists of: 1) Conceptual development 4) Scope reporting 2) Scope statement 5) Control systems 3) Work authorization 6) Project closeout See Table 5.1 for details
Conceptual Development The process that addresses project objectives by finding the best ways to meet them. Collect data and develop information: • Problem or need statement • Information gathering and baselining • Constraints and restrictions • Alternative solution analysis • Project objectives with a clear statement of expectations
Problem Statements Sets the stage for the project Successful conceptual development requires: • Goals and objects are clearly stated • Should be specific and measureable • i.e. Create goals such as “Improve gas mileage from 12 mpg to 16 mpg by June 30th” not “Improve gas mileage” • Complete understanding of the problem • Use the SMART model
SMART Example • Poorly written objective: • Seminar delivered via electronic media. • Improved: • The project management seminar will be delivered via Web conference at 10:00 a.m. central time, on January 15th. The host, John Schneider, will discuss the ethics of project management for 50 minutes, followed by a 10-minute question-and-answer session at the conclusion of the session.
Statement of Work (SOW) A SOW is a detailed narrative description of the work required for a project. Effective SOWs contain • Key objectives for the project • A brief and general description of the work to be performed • Background or history of why this is a project • Expected outcomes • Funding and schedule constraints • Timeline and milestones • Signatures of acceptance See UPMM_IIL_Project Charter.docand Table 5.2
The Scope Statement Process • Establish the project goal criteria • cost • schedule • performance • deliverables • review/approval gates • Develop the management plan for the project • Establish a work breakdown structure • Create a scope baseline
Work Breakdown Structure A process that sets a project’s scope by breaking down its overall mission into a cohesive set of synchronous, increasingly specific tasks. What does the WBS accomplish? • It echoes project objectives. • It is the organization chart for the project. • Creates the logic for tracking costs, schedule, and performance specifications for each element in the project. • May be used to communicate project status. • May be used to improve overall project communication. • Demonstrates how the project will be controlled.
1.0 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.3.1 1.2.1 1.3.2 1.2.2 1.2.3 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 Work Breakdown Structure and Codes The project is the overall project under development Work packages are individual project activities Deliverables are major project components Sub-deliverables are supporting deliverables
Defining a Work Package Lowest level in WBS Deliverable result One owner Miniature projects Milestones Fits organization Trackable
Organizational Breakdown Structure Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) allows • Define work definition • Owner assignment of work packages • Budget assignment to departments OBS links cost, activity & responsibility
LEAD PROJECT PERSONNEL Task Ann Dave Sue Jim Bob Deliverable & Code HR R&D IS IS R&D Match IT to Problem 1.1.1 Org. Tasks Analysis 1.1 Develop 1.1.2 info Interview Identify IS user needs 1.2.1 users 1.2 Develop 1.2.2 show Gain user 1.2.3 “buy in” Prepare Find cost/ 1.3.1 proposal benefit info 1.3 Responsibility Assignment Matrix • Identify personnel who will be directly responsible for each work package Support Responsible Approval Notification See UPMM_IIL_Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM).doc
Work Authorization Let the work begin!! The formal “go ahead” to begin working the project. Follows the approval of scope management steps: • scope definition • planning documents • management plans • contractual documents
Contractual Documentation Most contracts contain: Requirements Valid consideration Contracted terms Contracts range from: Lump Sum Cost Plus also called “Turnkey”
Scope Reporting Determines what types of information is reported, whoreceives copies, when, and how information is acquired and disseminated. Typical project reports contain • Budget performance status • Schedule status • Technical performance status Solid communication between all parties is one of the most important task to be accomplished.
Reasons Why Projects Fail • Politics • Naïve promises • Naïve optimism • Startup mentality of fledging entrepreneurial companies • “Marine Corps” mentality • Intensive competition caused by globalization • Intense competition caused by appearance of new technologies • Intense pressure caused by unexpected government regulations • Unexpected and/or unplanned crises #1 Reason Poor Scope Statements!
Types of Control Systems Control systems are vital to ensure that any changes to the project baseline are conducted in a systematic and thorough manner. • Configuration – same scope? • Design – same scope, schedule and cost? • Trend monitoring – same cost, schedules and resources? • Document – documentation compiled and circulated? • Acquisition – monitors resources • Specification – monitors requirements and change control How does a project become a year late? One day at a time! See UPMM_IIL_Project Change Request Form.doc
Project Closeout The job is not over until the paperwork is done… Closeout documentation is used to: Resolve disputes Train project managers Facilitate auditing Closeout documentation includes: Historical records Post project analysis – post-mortem process Financial closeout
Chapter 5 Review and Discussion • What are the primary benefits of developing a comprehensive project scope analysis? • What are the key characteristics of a work package? • Create a Work Breakdown Structure for a term paper project or another school-related project you are working on. What are the steps in the WBS? Can you identify any sub-steps for each step?
Chapter 5 Review and Discussion • What are the benefits of designing a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) for a project? • Develop an argument for scope reporting mechanisms. At a minimum, what types of reports do you consider necessary for document control of a project? Why? • What is the chief purpose of configuration management? In your opinion, why has it become increasingly popular in recent years as part of the project management process? • What is the logic behind developing a plan for project closeout prior to even beginning the project?
Case Study 2: Working with Customers to Develop Good Requirements • Customer Request ImaPrez says, “I want a phone system like the company downstairs.” • Your Task • Starting with Ima’s stated want/need, develop a set of questions so that project objectives and functional and technical requirements can be established. • Based on Ima’s stated want/need, rewrite it as a SMART objective in a functional format.