Scope Management Chapter 5
1- Project Scope Project scope is everything about a project – work content as well as expected outcomes. Scope management is the function of controlling a project in terms of its goals and objectives and consists of: 1) Conceptual development 4) Scope reporting 2) Scope statement 5) Control systems 3) Work authorization 6) Project closeout
1- Conceptual Development The process that addresses project objectivesby finding the best ways to meet them. Key steps in information development: • Problem/need statement: state the goals, underlying the problem and define what the project intends to do. • Information gathering: gather all relevant data, because project can only be initiated when the PM have a clear understanding of it.
1- Conceptual Development • Constraints: PM must understand any restrictions that may affect the project development.(time, budget, client demands…) • Alternative analysis: Problems offer alternative methods for solution. A clear understanding of the nature of the problem may help generating alternative solutions. • Project objectives: when each step is well done, the project will logically reaches its objectives.
Problem Statements Successful conceptual development requires: • Reduction of overall project complexity • Goals and objects are clearly stated • Reference points are provided • Complete understanding of the problem
Statement of Work (SOW) A SOW is a detailed narrative description of the work required for a project. Effective SOWs contain • Introduction and background • Technical description • Timeline and milestones • Client expectations
2-The Scope Statement Process: reflects a project’s team best efforts at creating the documentation and approval of all important project parameters prior to proceeding to the development phase. It includes: • Establish the project goal criteria • cost • schedule • performance • Deliverables: any measurable, tangible verifiable outcome result or item. • review and approval gates • Develop the management planfor the project • Establish a work breakdown structure • Create a scope baseline
Work Breakdown Structure • A process that sets a project’s scope by breaking downits overall mission into a cohesive set of synchronous, increasingly specific tasks. • The best way to start a project is to recognize that any project is just the collection of a number of discrete steps or activities. There is no magic formula: projects get completed one step at a time, activity by activity. • A WBS is “a deliverable-oriented grouping of project elements which organizes and defines the total scope of a project. Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed definition of a project component”.
WBS 1-Goal setting using WBS 2-Goal setting without WBS
Work Breakdown Structure a process that sets a project’s scope by breaking downits overall mission into a cohesive set of synchronous, increasingly specific tasks. The Purrpose s of WBS: • 1. IT ECHOES PROJECT OBJECTIVES. • 2. IT IS THE ORGANIZATION CHART FOR THE PROJECT. • 3. IT CREATES THE LOGIC FOR TRACKING COSTS, SCHEDULE, AND PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS FOR EACH ELEMENT IN THE PROJECT. • 4. IT MAY BE USED TO COMMUNICATE PROJECT STATUS. • 5. IT MAY BE USED TO IMPROVE OVERALL PROJECT COMMUNICATION. • 6. IT DEMONSTRATES HOW THE PROJECT WILL BE CONTROLLED.
1.0 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.3.1 1.2.1 1.3.2 1.2.2 1.2.3 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 Work Breakdown Structure and Codes The project is the overall project under development Work Packages are individual project activities Deliverables are major project components Subdeliverables are supporting deliverables
WBS: example Consider the case of a student working together on a term paper and final presentation for a college seminar. The 1st step is to breakdown the project into a series o tasks, each one allocated to a member. The process becomes easier to manage by reducing it to a series of simpler tasks.
Defining a Work Package • Work packages are usually seen as the smallest, indivisible components of a WBS. • Work packages are the lowest level in the WBS. They are composed of short-duration tasks that have a defined beginning and end, are assigned costs, and consume some resources.
Defining a Work Package 3. Work packages introduce a brief description of each activities includes (conduct problem analysis, develop information…) 4. A company’s accounting function assigns WBS codes to each activity to allocate costs more precisely, and track them.
Defining a Work Package Lowest level in WBS Deliverable result One owner Miniature projects Milestones Fits organization Trackable
Organizational Breakdown Structure Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) allows • Work definition • Owner assignment of work packages • Budget assignment to departments OBS links cost, activity & responsibility
LEAD PROJECT PERSONNEL Task Ann Dave Sue Jim Bob Deliverable & Code HR R&D IS IS R&D Match IT to Problem 1.1.1 Org. Tasks Analysis 1.1 Develop 1.1.2 info Interview Identify IS user needs 1.2.1 users 1.2 Develop 1.2.2 show Gain user 1.2.3 “buy in” Prepare Find cost/ 1.3.1 proposal benefit info 1.3 Responsibility Assignment Matrix Support Notification Responsible Approval
The responsibility assignment Matrix (RAM) • The RAM refer to a linear responsibility chart. • The RAM not only lists the member of the project team responsible for each activity, but the other significant members of the team at each stage as well, organized according to haw that activity requires their support. • RAM allows the PM to determine how best to team people for maximum efficiency. • RAM allows the PM to assess team members’ strengths, weaknesses, work commitment and availability.
3- Work Authorization The formal “go ahead” to begin work. It follows the scope management steps of: • scope definition • planning documents • management plans • contractual documents It consists of the formal sign-off on all project plans, including detailed specifications for project delivery.
Contractual Documentation Work authorization addresses contractual obligations. Most contracts contain: a- Requirements: the definition accepted and clearly understood by both parties of “ specific performance”. b- Valid consideration: Determine the commitment agreed to both parties. c- Contracted terms: determine the criteria for inspection, and the correction action for defects as: delays, damages or nonperformance.
Contractual Documentation Contractual arrangement can serve to codify the relationship between a project organization and a customer. Contracts range from: Turnkey contracts: in which the project organization assumes all responsibility for successful performance. Cost plus: which fix the company ‘s profit for a project in advance. Lump Sum Cost Plus also called “Turnkey”
4-Scope Reporting determines what types of information reported, whoreceives copies, when, and how information is acquired and disseminated. Typical project reports contain • Cost status: updates on budget performance. • Schedule status: updates on schedule adherence. • Technical performance: updates on technical challenges and solutions.
5- Types of Control Systems • Configuration control: did any changes emerge and alter the original project intent. • Design control: It consists on monitoring the project during the design stage. • Trend monitoring: it consists on tracking the estimated criterions against those planned. It shows if there is any deviation. • Document control: is a way of making sure that anything contractual or legal is documented and distributed. • Acquisition control: monitors systems used to acquire necessary project equipment in the development and implementation phase. • Specification control: ensures that project specifications are prepared clearly, communicated to all concerned parties, and changed with proper authorization.
6- Project Closeout The job is not over until the paperwork is done… Closeout documentation is used to: - Resolve disputes - Train project managers - Facilitate auditing
6- Project Closeout Closeout documentation includes: Historical records: documentation used to predict trends, analyze feasibility, highlight problems. Post project analysis: analysis and documentation of project’s performance in terms of costs, time adherence and technical specification. Financial closeout: accounting analysis of how funds were dispersed on the project.