Sectionalism Begins North • Industrialized • Textiles, farm equipment, guns • Railroads • Telegraphs wires • Immigrants • Some antislavery South • Agricultural • Cotton, rice, tobacco • Rivers • Slaves
Wilmot Proviso David Wilmot • 1846 • No slavery in new territories from Mexican War • California, Utah, and New Mexico • Southern argument of property • Balance of Power in Congress • Southerner’s start to threaten succession
Compromise of 1850 • Henry Clay • California was to be admitted to the Union as a free state • Revision and stricter Fugitive Slave Law • North had to help Capture and return slaves • Popular Sovereignty – the right for the actual residents of the state to vote and decide to be free or have slaves
Slave Voyage • Unclean • Stale food • Darkness • Disease • Raped and Beaten • Many died
Resistance of Slavery • Underground Railroad • Group of people that supported the abolishment of slavery • Conductors were the leaders who took slaves to the North • They used false cupboards and tunnels and gave them food and clothing to disguise them
Harriet Tubman • Abolitionist • 19 trips to North • 300 slaves
Uncle Tom’s Cabin • 1852 • Harriet Beecher Stowe • Bestseller -Million copies by 1853 • Stereotypes • Depicted or talked about cruelties of Slavery • Helped raise support for ending slavery
Uncle Tom • Toms are typically good, gentle, religious and sober. Images of Uncle Toms were another favorite of advertisers and "Uncle Ben" is still being used to sell rice.
Sambo • "Sambo" refers to Black men that were considered very happy, usually laughing, lazy, irresponsible or carefree.
Mammy • dark skin, a heavyset frame and large bust, and overall matronly appearance, complete with an apron around her waist and a kerchief on her head. • "Lord have mercy"
Jim Crow • The "father of American minstrelsy" was Thomas Dartmouth "Daddy" Rice (1808-60), who in 1828 developed a song-and-dance routine where he impersonated an old, crippled black slave he knew named Jim Crow.
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 • Wanted to divide states • Would bring a vote on slavery or popular sovereignty • Repeal Missouri Compromise • Illegal voters came from slave states and Kansas became a slave state • People rebelled
Bloody Kansas John Brown • Abolitionist • Believed God wanted him to fight slavery • Led raids against a proslavery settlement
Violence in the Senate • Preston Brooks- SC • Charles Sumner- Made Speech
John Brown • 1859 • Raid on Harpers Ferry, VA • Tried to take over a federal arsenal • Wanted to give guns and weapons to slaves for an uprising • No slaves came forward… failed attempt • Brown was hung for high treason
Lincoln Elected • May 1860 • Republican Candidate • “would not directly or indirectly interfere with their slaves, or with them” • Less than half of the popular vote
Like a row of dominoes • December 20, 1860 - South Carolina • 1861 – Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. • Confederacy • Constitution- protected and recognized slavery • States were to be sovereign and independent • Jefferson Davis
First Battle • March 4, 1861 • Fort Sumter • Surrender of North
The Battle of the Haves and Have Nots • North – More people, food production, factories, railroads. • South – Cotton production, Skilled Generals, Motivated soldiers.
Northern Plan to winAnaconda Plan • Block Southern Ports • Control the Mississippi River • Capture the capital at Richmond, Virginia
The Battle of Bull Run • 25 miles from Washington DC • General “Stonewall” Thomas Jackson • First Southern Victory
The Leading Generals • Robert E. Lee (South/Confederate) and Ulysses S. Grant (North/ Union)
Deadliest Day Ever • Lee’s effort to capture Washington DC • Union corporal found plans in one of Lee’s cigars • September 17, 1862 • Antietam • 26,000 dead
Freedom • Emancipation Proclamation • January 1, 1863 • Freed slaves in the South.
“ I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within these said designated States and parts of States are, and henceforward shall be free; and that the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons. And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence, unless in necessary self-defense; and I recommend to them, that in all cases, when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages. And I further declare and make known that such persons of suitable condition will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service. And, upon this, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution, upon military necessity, I invoke the considerate judgment of mankind and the gracious favor of Almighty God.” —from The Emancipation Proclamation, January 1, 1863
Sherman’s March to the Sea • Scorched Earth policy- burned what could be used in war effort • Will devastate South after war is over • Causes surrender of Confederacy to USA
Buffalo Soldiers • All black regiments • Helped North Win
Surrender at Appamattox Courthouse • April 9, 1865 Lee surrenders to Grant
Jim Crow Laws • Legalized segregation in schools, housing, military, and drinking fountains.
Test Review • STUDY! • Know all notes and key terms • Primary vs. Secondary sources • North or South