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American Civil War

American Civil War

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American Civil War

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  1. American Civil War

  2. Fort Sumter • Fort in Charleston, South Carolina • Sight of the first battle in the Civil War

  3. Richmond, Virginia • Capital of the Confederacy

  4. Border States • states between the North and the South that were divided over whether to stay in the Union or join the Confederacy • Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland and Delaware

  5. Importance of Border States • Each held a strategic value to the North • Maryland was most important of all since the capital of the North was inside its borders • Many citizens in Border States joined the Confederacy, however the states remained with the Union

  6. West Virginia • Began as 48 counties in western Virginia who supported the Union • Became a state in 1863

  7. The North’s Advantages • Larger population • More industry • More abundant resources • Better banking system • To raise money for the war • More ships • Most of the members of the regular navy • More efficient railway network

  8. Abraham Lincoln • North’s greatest advantage was his leadership, dedication, intelligence and humanity

  9. The North’s Disadvantages • Had to invade and then hold the southern states • Support of the southern people was very strong • Similar to American Revolution when larger force invaded smaller force and had to conquer and then hold the land, as well as go against the support of the locals

  10. The South’s Advantages • Strong support from the white community • Fighting on their land • Defending their land, homes and way of life • Superior military leadership • Military tradition within southern families • Many military college graduates giving them a large pool of officers

  11. The South’s Disadvantages • Smaller population of free white men • Very few factories to produce weapons and supplies • Produced half as much food • Half the miles of railroad tracks • Far fewer trains to deliver food, weapons and supplies • Belief in States’ Rights limited the power of the Confederate government to be effective

  12. States’ Rights • the rights of each individual state to govern itself

  13. Main Goals of the War • North: Bring Southern states back into the Union (later also to end slavery) • South: Gain recognition as an independent nation

  14. Union’s Plan to Win the War • Blockade southern ports so the South could not earn money by exporting cotton, and to prevent supplies from reaching the South • Gain control of the Mississippi River to cut supply lines to the South and split up the Confederacy • Capture Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia

  15. Jefferson Davis • President of the Confederate States of America

  16. Confederacies Plan to Win the War • Defend their homeland until the North tired of fighting • Have Britain and France (who imported large amounts of cotton from the South) pressure the North into end the war • Go on the offensive to threaten Northern cities and convince the North they could not win the war

  17. Offensive • Position of attacking or the attack itself

  18. Civil War Soldiers • Most were farmers • Average age was 25 • Many under 21 • 850,000 troops fought for the Confederacy • 2.1 million troops fought for the Union (including about 200,000 African Americans)

  19. Rebel • confederate soldier, so called because of opposition to the established government

  20. Yankee • Union Soldier

  21. William Sherman • Union General during the Civil War

  22. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson • General who rallied Confederate troops to victory at the First Battle of Bull Run • Was said to have held strong “like a stone wall”

  23. Rebel Yell • Name Union troops gave to the crazed scream Confederate troops would give while on the attack

  24. First Battle of Bull Run • First major battle of the Civil War • Union drove off the Confederates at first • Confederates counterattacked under the command of General Thomas Jackson • Retreating Union soldiers collided with civilians on their way back to Washington D.C.

  25. Army of the Potomac • Name for the Union Army of the East • Commanded by General George B. McClellan

  26. Blockade Runners • Confederate ships that sail into and out of blockaded areas,

  27. Blockade Effectiveness • Cut trade to the south by more than two thirds • Limited supplies such as coffee, shoes, nails, salt, guns and ammunition

  28. Ironclad • Armored naval vessel

  29. Monitor vs. Merrimack • First battle between two ironclad warships in naval history • Neither ship was able to severely damage the other • Marked the beginning of a new era in naval warfare

  30. Ulysses S. Grant • Commanded the Unions attempt to gain control of Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers • His victories drove the Confederates out of Kentucky, and kept it as a border state rather than falling under the Confederacy

  31. Confederate Camp Near Shiloh

  32. Battle of Shiloh • In Corinth, Mississippi over a railroad junction • South won the first day • North won the second day and the battle after help arrived • Together the two armies suffered 20,000 casualties in the battle • Was soon followed by the Union taking control of New Orleans