What is a standard police interview? Question & Answer approach Who What When Where Why How
What is a cognitive interview? Witness interviewed with view to enhancing retrieval of the original memory Focus is on the witnesses recollections not ‘just the facts’
Task: Match the terms and techniques • You will be given terms which link to the SI (Standard interview) and the CI ( Cognitive interview). • Your task, in pairs, is to decide which terms belong to the SI and which belong to the CI, in order to build up information on the techniques used in both styles of police interview.
Standard interview (SI) ? Cognitive interview (CI) ? BRIEF QUESTIONS / SHORTER ANSWERS / LISTEN TO WITNESS PAUSE AFTER EACH RESPONSE / CLOSED QUESTIONS OPEN QUESTIONS / ACTIVE LISTENING / LESS DETAILED RESPONSES QUESTION SEQUENCE OUT OF SYNC / DEVELOP RAPPORT MINIMISING DISTRACTIONS / DIRECT QUESTIONS WITNESSES INTERRUPTED / BROKEN CONCENTRATION AVOID INTERRUPTIONS / NO FREE TALKING / DETAILED RESPONSES
What term belong to what techniques? Standard interview Cognitive interview BRIEF QUESTIONS SHORTER ANSWERS CLOSED QUESTIONS LESS DETAILED RESPONSES QUESTION SEQUENCE OUT OF SYNC DIRECT QUESTIONS BROKEN CONCENTRATION NO FREE TALKING LISTEN TO WITNESS PAUSE AFTER EACH RESPONSE OPEN QUESTIONS ACTIVE LISTENING DEVELOP RAPPORT MINIMISING DISTRACTIONS AVOID INTERRUPTIONS DETAILED RESPONSES
Standard interview Interviewer develops rhythm that suggests to interviewee that their role is strictly to respond to the questions asked no more no less. Unfortunately this may make the person feel intimidated or reluctant to offer small details from his or her recollections because the interviewee feels those details are of no importance. As a result pertinent particulars that may be potentially valuable to an investigation are potentially overlooked and may not be recovered, with the interviewer gaining only superficial information.
Cognitive interview Based on principles of how the mind works, our memory and cognition/perception, as well as the social dynamics of how people communicate SOCIAL DYNAMICS: Important to develop rapport and treat the witness as an individual and allow them to talk about their feeling and be encouraged to actively participate to promote extensive and detailed response MEMORY & COGNITION: Witnesses are encouraged to recreate the context of the event, recall from a different perspective, recall in reverse order and report everything, however trivial it may seem.