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Chapter 15

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Chapter 15

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  1. Chapter 15 Physical Fitness

  2. Chapter Objectives • After completing this chapter, you should be able to • Define and measure health-related physical fitness and skill-related physical fitness. • 2. State why physical fitness should be measured. • 3. List six guidelines for the administration and use of physical fitness tests. 15-2

  3. Chapter Objectives 4. Contrast norm-referenced and criterion- referenced fitness standards and state how both may be used appropriately in testing for physical fitness. 5. Describe responsibilities after the measurement of physical fitness and prescribe activities and exercises for the development of physical fitness. 15-3

  4. Fitness and Physical Fitness Terms fitness and physical fitness are often used interchangeably. Both involve quality of life, but do not mean same thing. Fitness - includes emotional, mental, spiritual, and social fitness, as well as physical fitness; the term wellness often used to mean same thing. When defining physical fitness, it may be best to describe two types of physical fitness: health-related and skill-related. 15-4

  5. Health-Related Physical Fitness • Health-related physical fitness includes cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition (lean/fatness). • Means: • Organic systems of body are healthy and function efficiently. • 2. Individual is able to engage in vigorous tasks and leisure activities. 15-5

  6. Health-Related Physical Fitness Health-related physical fitness exerts a positive influence on several risks factors associated with cardiovascular disease. It is effective in reducing the risk of back pain, diabetes, osteoporosis, and obesity. It is an effective way to manage emotional stress. It enables you to look better, feel better, and enjoy a healthy, happy, and full life. 15-6

  7. Skill-Related Physical Fitness Skill-related physical fitness includes the five components of health-related fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition) and the components of agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time, and speed. 15-7

  8. Skill-Related Physical Fitness Sometimes referred to as athletic-performance-related fitness. Exercise programs for the development and maintenance of health-related fitness are usually different from those programs for skill-related fitness. 15-8

  9. Why Measure Physical Fitness? Relationship of good health and cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition has been described previously. Development of these components should be a primary objective in all school physical education programs and in all health promotion programs. 15-9

  10. Why Measure Physical Fitness? Tests results can be used to teach the concepts of fitness, to motivate for self-improvement, and to help individuals plan fitness programs. Testing for skill-related fitness can serve to motivate high-ability individuals to perform at even higher levels. Diagnostic testing will enable you to prescribe appropriate activities to develop components of skill-related fitness; help individuals succeed in sports and daily activities. 15-10

  11. Guidelines for the Administration and Use of Fitness Tests • Measure fitness components that the public and research experts agree are the most important. Focus on health and self-improvement rather than comparison to others. • In the school environment, fitness tests should be a part of the total educational program. Attention should be given to the knowledge and understanding of fitness concepts. • 3. Fitness test results should be kept confidential; do not embarrass individual self-image. 15-11

  12. Guidelines for the Administration and Use of Fitness Tests 4. Teach individuals how to take fitness tests. 5. Fitness awards should encourage lifetime activity rather than a one-time performance. 6. Take care to provide necessary, adequate, sufficient, and valid information regarding test results to individuals. 15-12

  13. Norm-Referenced Standards Versus Criterion-Referenced Standards Norm-referenced tests are well suited for measurement of skill-related fitness if the goal is to motivate individuals to achieve a high level of fitness. May be inadvisable to use of norm-referenced fitness standards with physically inactive and low-fit individuals. . If percentiles are used without consideration of the absolute score, improvements in student performance may not be noted; individuals may be discouraged. 15-13

  14. Norm-Referenced Standards Versus Criterion-Referenced Standards Criterion-referenced standards are used when individual differences are unimportant and performance is judged relative to some standard that reflects a satisfactory level of the attribute being measured. CR standards for health-related fitness tests purportedly represent the minimum level of an attribute or function that is consistent with good health. A score higher than the standard score is not necessarily better. 15-14

  15. Norm-Referenced Standards Versus Criterion-Referenced Standards Standards are used as goals for low-fit individuals, and unless limited physically, most individuals are capable of attaining the standards. Criticism of such standards, however, is that because they represent desired minimum levels of fitness, they do not serve to motivate individuals to seek a higher level of fitness. 15-15

  16. Responsibilities after Measurement • Develop program for individuals who need to improve status in one or more components of physical fitness • One particular activity will not develop all components of physical fitness; use variety of activities • In school environment may develop program for use outside of school; journals may be used • Promote active lifestyle 15-16

  17. Tests of Health-Related Physical Fitness Difficult to establish a single test battery that measures all components of health-related or skill-related fitness. No one item that measures total-body muscular strength, muscular endurance, or flexibility; must decide which parts of the body are to be measured for these components. 15-17

  18. Tests of Health-Related Physical Fitness Many tests include items that measure arm and shoulder girdle strength and endurance, strength and endurance of the abdominal region, and low-back-posterior-thigh flexibility. 15-18

  19. Tests of Health-Related Physical Fitness • Should be aware of the following facts when reviewing physical fitness tests in chapter. • Some tests have similar items that may not be administered in the same way (i.e. sit-up and sit and reach). • Some of the criterion-reference standards vary for the health-related physical fitness standards. • Tests currently not promoted are included because of uniqueness of a component or components. 15-19

  20. Tests of Health-Related Physical Fitness Discussions about the possibility of a national youth fitness test have been held among representatives of various groups. Agreement about components of health-related fitness tests and the various items that can be used to measure the components. No agreement about the standards, however. Also, some groups feel that a fitness test should include both health-related and skill-related fitness items. 15-20

  21. The FITNESSGRAM/ACTIVITYGRAM Developed by the Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research, the FITNESSGRAM provides criterion-related standards that classifies individuals in two general areas: “Needs Improvement” and “Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ)”. ACTIVITYGRAM is a detailed three-day assessment of physical activity. Table 15.1 provides the lower end (good) standards for the HFZ. Age level. Five through seventeen-plus 15-21

  22. The FITNESSGRAM Test Components 1. Aerobic capacity: The Pacer 1-mile run (alternative) Walk test (alternative) 2. Body composition: Sum of triceps and medial-calf skinfold measurements for grades 4-12. Sum of triceps, medial-calf, and adominal skinfold measurements for college students. Body mass index used if skinfold measurements are not provided. 15-22

  23. The FITNESSGRAM 3. Abdominal strength and endurance: Curl-up (performed at specified cadence) 4. Trunk extensor strength and flexibility: Trunk lift 5. Upper body strength and endurance: Push-up Modified pull-up Pull-up Flexed arm-hang 6. Flexibility: Back-saver sit and reach Shoulder stretch 15-23

  24. AAHPERD Health-Related Physical Fitness Test for College Students Although AAHPERD no longer promote this test, it is useful as college-student norms are provided with the test. Table 15.2 includes percentile norms. Age level. College-age 15-24

  25. AAHPERD Health-Related Physical Fitness • Test Components • Cardiorespiratory functional capacity and endurance: 1-mile run or 9-minute run • Body composition: Sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements. • Abdominal muscular strength and endurance: Modified sit-ups • Flexibility: Sit and reach 15-25

  26. South Carolina Physical Fitness Test This test includes both criterion- and norm-referenced standards for students and criterion-referenced standards for adults. Table 15.3 includes criterion-referenced standards for ages nine through fifty-nine. Age level. Nine through adult 15-26

  27. South Carolina Physical Fitness Test • Test Components • Cardiorespiratory function: 1-mile run or 9-minute run • Muscular strength and muscular endurance of the abdominal musculature: 1-minute bent-knee sit-ups • Low-back/hamstring muscle flexibility: sit and reach • Body composition: Sum of triceps and abdominal skinfold measurements 15-27

  28. Fit Youth Today Fit Youth Today (FYT) currently is not promoted. The aerobic fitness and cardiorespiratory endurance test is unique. Table 15.4 includes criterion-referenced standards for grades K-12. Age level. Grades K through 12 15-28

  29. Fit Youth Today • Test Components • Aerobic fitness and cardiorespiratory endurance: • Grades K-1 – jog or move continuously for 12 minutes • Grades 2-3 – jog or move continuously for 15 minutes • Grades 4-12 – jog at steady pace for 20 minutes 15-29

  30. Fit Youth Today Test Components 2. Abdominal muscular strength and endurance: 2-minute bent-knee curl-up 3. Trunk flexion: Sit and reach. 4. Body composition: Sum of triceps and medial-calf skinfold measurements. 15-30

  31. YMCA Physical Fitness Test The YMCA Physical Fitness Test is administered as part of a health-related physical fitness program. A medical examination is required before the test is administered. Table 15.5 includes norms from the range of “Very Poor” to “Excellent.” Age level. Eighteen through sixty-five plus 15-31

  32. YMCA Physical Fitness Test • Test Components • Body composition: Both men and women use the sum of four skinfolds – abdomen, ilium, triceps, and thigh. • Cardiorespiratory endurance: Maximal physical working capacity (PWC) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) are predicted from the response to a submaximal workload on a bicycle ergometer. A 3-minute step test may be used as a substitute for the bicycle ergometer test. 15-32

  33. YMCA Physical Fitness Test Test Components 3. Trunk flexion: Sit and reach. 4. Muscular strength and endurance: Bench press 1-minute bent-knee sit-ups 15-33

  34. ACSM Fitness Test • Table 15.6 includes the average standards for the push-up and sit and reach tests. • Age level. Twenty through adulthood. • Test Components • Aerobic fitness: Rockport 1-mile walk Performance standards are found in figure 11.2. 15-34

  35. ACSM Fitness Test Test Components 2. Muscular fitness: Push-ups. Table 15.6 includes average standards. 3. Flexibility: Sit and reach. Table 15.6 includes average standards. 4. Body composition: Body mass index (BMI). A BMI of 19 to 25 is desirable. 5. Waist-to-hip ratio (W/H). Table 14.11 provides standards for ratio. 15-35

  36. The Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness & Lifestyle Appraisal: CSEP’s Guide to Healthy Living – Health Related Fitness Appraisal The Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness & Lifestyle Appraisal manual covers the topics of understanding behavior change, helping people change, healthy physical activity participation, healthy lifestyle, basic exercise physiology, and health-related fitness. 15-36

  37. The Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness & Lifestyle Appraisal: CSEP’s Guide to Healthy Living – Health Related Fitness Appraisal Preappraisal screening procedures include measurement of resting heart rate, blood pressure, and utilization of the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) found in figure 11.1. 15-37

  38. The Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness & Lifestyle Appraisal • Age level. Fifteen through sixty-nine. • Test Components • Body composition: Standing height and waist girth Triceps, biceps, subscapular, iliac crest, and medial-calf skinfold measurements Table 15.7 and Table 15.8 are used to interpret the body composition values. 15-38

  39. The Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness & Lifestyle Appraisal Test Components 2. Aerobic fitness: The Modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (mCAFT), a step test, is used. Figure 15.1 shows the ergometer steps that are used to administer the mCAFT. The aerobic fitness score is determined by using the oxygen cost of the test and the performer’s weight and age in the equation provided in text. 15-39

  40. The Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness & Lifestyle Appraisal Test Components 2. Aerobic fitness Table 15.9 provides the stages and cadence for the step test. Table 15.10 includes the oxygen cost of test. Table 15.11 includes the health benefit zone for the score. 15-40

  41. The Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness & Lifestyle Appraisal Test Components 3. Musculoskeletal fitness: Five components of musculoskeltal fitness are appraise. Table 15.12 includes the “Good” health benefits zone for the components. *Grip Strength *Push-ups *Trunk Forward Flexion 15-41

  42. The Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness & Lifestyle Appraisal Test Components 3. Musculoskeletal fitness: *Partial Curl-up (required cadence) *Vertical Jump – Scored as a straight height jump and leg power. Leg power is determined with the formula found in text. 15-42

  43. Tests of Skill-Related Physical Fitness Rarely does a single test battery include all components of skill-related physical fitness. May use items of several tests to measure additional components. 15-43

  44. AAU Physical Fitness Test The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) no longer promotes this test. The test has unique items and test standards are available. Table 15.13 includes the criteria for Outstanding Achievement and Attainment standards. Age level. Six through seventeen 15-44

  45. AAU Physical Fitness Test • Test Components • Cardiorespiratory endurance: Two options are provided. • Distance run: ¼ mile for ages six and seven; ½ mile for ages eight and nine; ¾ mile for ages ten and eleven; and 1 mile for ages twelve through seventeen. • Hoosier endurance shuttle run 15-45

  46. AAU Physical Fitness Test • Test Components • 2. Trunk strength and endurance: 1-minute bent-knee sit-ups • Flexibility of hamstrings and lower back: Sit and reach test • 4. Upper-body strength and endurance: Pull-ups 15-46

  47. AAU Physical Fitness Test • Test Components • The following items are optional test items: • Explosive leg strength and efficiency of body mass in space: standing long jump • Upper body static endurance (males): Isometric push-ups • Upper-body strength and endurance (females): Modified push-ups with 30-second time limit 15-47

  48. AAU Physical Fitness Test • Test Components (Optional Items) • Static leg endurance: Isometric leg squat (phantom chair) • Agility and quickness: Shuttle run • Speed, quickness, and anaerobic capacity: Sprint. 50 yards for ages nine through twelve; 100 yards for ages thirteen through seventeen 15-48

  49. The President’s Challenge Participants in the President’s Challenge can strive for one of three awards. Presidential Physical Fitness Award: Must score at or above the eighty-fifth percentile on all five test items. National Physical Fitness Award: Score at or above the fiftieth percentile, but less than the eighty-fifth percentile. Participant Physical Fitness Award: Attempt all five items but scores fall below the fiftieth percentile on one or more items. 15-49

  50. The President’s Challenge Table 15.14 includes the standard for the Presidential Fitness Award and the National Physical Fitness Award. The President’s Challenge also provides a health-criterion-referenced award as an alternative to the traditional awards. The Health Fitness Award (HFA) can be earned by students whose test scores meet or exceed the specified health criteria on each of the five items constituting the President’s Challenge Health Test. (See text for the items). 15-50