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Bell Ringer

Bell Ringer

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Bell Ringer

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  1. Bell Ringer The caption reads “To the Victor belong the Spoils”. What do you think this cartoon is trying to say about Andrew Jackson? What kind of spoils could a president get?

  2. Growth and Reform1800-1850 Chapter 2

  3. Democracy, Nationalism, and Sectionalism • Andrew Jackson was a beloved war hero from the War of 1812 • Afterwards he forcefully took control of Florida and after the Adams-Onís Treaty he became FL’s first governor • Touted as the “common man” he quickly rose through the political ranks • In 1824 he ran against John Quincy Adams for the presidency • The election was a tie, meaning the House of Reps got to decided • Henry Clay made a “corrupt bargain” with Adams that if he, as Speaker of the House, helped Adams win, Adams would make Clay Sec. of State • Adams won and Clay became Sec. of State

  4. Democracy, Nationalism, and Sectionalism • Jackson, who had won the popular vote, screamed about the corrupt bargain • He would spend the next four years preparing for a rematch against Adams • The election of 1828 led to a decisive win for Jackson • This election was truly the first modern election in which the politics of mudslinging was in • Jackson removed many people from their positions so he could give government jobs to his supporters/friends • This was the spoils system as indicated in the cartoon

  5. Democracy, Nationalism, and Sectionalism • Jackson had three main concerns: Natives, nullification, and the Bank of the U.S. • While many Natives lived in areas like GA and were becoming Americanized, Jackson wanted them removed • Some tribes left willingly, some ran to the Everglades (Seminoles) and waged war from there, while another group (Cherokee) used the white man’s tool—lawsuit • In Worchester v. Georgiathe Supreme Court sided with the Natives saying they could not be forcefully relocated • Jackson responded, “John Marshall has made his decision. Now let him enforce it.”

  6. Democracy, Nationalism, and Sectionalism • The Indian Removal Act was passed in 1830 • 15000 Cherokees were forced to move from GA to OK in what became known as the Trail of Tears • 4000 died during the move • Nullification crisis was next on Jackson’s plate • Several states were arguing that they should be allowed to ignore (nullify) federal laws they didn’t agree with • When the Tariff of Abominations was passed many called for nullification including V.P. John C. Calhoun in an anonymous essay called the “South Carolina Exposition and Protest”

  7. Democracy, Nationalism, and Sectionalism • Jackson responded to nullification and refusal to pay taxes with the Force Bill, saying that Federal troops would take the tax by force if need be • Jackson, at a state dinner toasted “To the Federal Union: it must be preserved…” • Calhoun responded, “The Union: next to our Liberty the most dear: may we all remember that it can only be preserved by respecting the rights of the States, and distributing equally the benefit and burden of the Union!“ • Calhoun resigned as V.P. and returned to SC to be a Senator once more

  8. Democracy, Nationalism, and Sectionalism • Jackson viewed the bank as the source of all evil • Those who ran the bank were abusing those who depended on it in his opinion • Nicholas Biddle thought he could push the bank’s re-charter through just before the election, forcing Jackson to say yes since he didn’t want to “kill” the bank right before the people voted • Jackson vetoed the charter despite the election’s upcoming date • When the bank expired, Jackson was pleased that he had destroyed the evil institution • In 1836 Martin Van Buren (Van Ruin) took office on the heals of the Panic of 1837 • The destruction of the bank lead to unstable money, etc. creating economic panic • Van Buren tried for a second term but the people went with William Henry Harrison, a Whig—New party that developed solely as an anti-Jackson group

  9. Religion and Reform • The Second Great Awakening truly brought people back to the church • They held revivals and told people to reform their lives by reforming society • Many new causes like temperance, prison reform, and abolitionism were pushed • The SGA birthed several new churches including the Unitarian Church, the African Methodist Episcopal Church, and the Mormon Church

  10. Religion and Reform • The Mormons were chased out of their communities and sent westward • They stopped in Nauvoo, IL but Joseph Smith was killed • Brigham Young moved the group out to Salt Lake City, UT where the Mormons have thrived ever since

  11. Religion and Reform • With the revival of religion came the desire to reform society and do good deeds • Dorothea Dix worked with prisoners teaching Bible studies as well as visiting asylums and poorhouses • She wrote this to the MA legislature: • “I come as the advocate of helpless, forgotten, insane men and women held in cages, closets, cellars, stalls, pens! Chained, naked, beaten with rods, and lashed into obedience!...Men of Massachusetts…raise up the fallen, succor the desolate, restore the outkast, defend the helpless.” • Her campaign led to our modern mental facilities

  12. Religion and Reform • Alcohol was blamed for a lot of society’s problems • Crime, sickness, poverty, abuse of women and children • People called for temperance, or banishment of alcohol • They would not get much passed before the Civil War other than stricter laws within states

  13. Religion and Reform • Education was also a goal for reformers • Wanted free, tax-supported education to make a stronger workforce • Horace Mann was successful in getting MA to adopt: • Standardized calendars, state oversight for schools, a Board of Education, adequate funding, end corporal punishment, and require that teachers have adequate training/certificates • The North embraced these ideas, the South would eventually

  14. Homework • Finish reading Ch. 2 and start on 3 • Your first test will be next Friday, Sept. 7th covering chapters 1-2 • It will combine multiple choice and essay, please make sure you’ve finished reading and are well studied by then

  15. Bell Ringer • “Fellow citizens, pardon me, and allow me to ask, why am I called upon to speak here today? What have I or those I represent to do with your national independence? Are the great principles of political freedom and of natural justice, embodied in that Declaration of Independence, extended to us? What, do the American slave, is your Fourth of July? I answer: a day that reveals to him, more than all other days in the year, the gross injustice and cruelty to which he is the constant victim.” • Write a response to Frederick Douglass’ comment.

  16. The Antislavery Movement • Slavery was becoming an “outdated notion” in the North as America entered the 1800s • Many states had passed laws banning it, the slave trade was made illegal in 1807 (pre the Constitution) • Many slaves were in the South • They did backbreaking labor like cotton farming • They barely had basic necessities (food, clothes, etc.) • They were treated brutally • Despite all this, many remained hopeful • Church helped including singing spirituals • Named children after relatives and passed down oral stories

  17. The Antislavery Movement • Many slaves fought back through sabotage or revolts • Nat Turner led the most successful revolt in the US killing 60 slave owners before he was captured and executed (as well as his followers) • Fearful of more slave revolts Southerners passed laws called slave codes • These laws prevented slaves from learning how to read, assembling in groups, or testify against white people

  18. The Antislavery Movement • The Underground Railroad was instituted to smuggle slaves from the South to Canada where they would not have to fear being recaptured and sent back to their owners • Harriett Tubman, or “Black Moses,” was a conductor who helped sneak people north • She helped 100s leading to Southerners putting a large bounty on her

  19. The Antislavery Movement • Those who spoke out against slavery were called abolitionists • William Lloyd Garrison published antislavery articles in The Liberator • Frederick Douglass, despite being a slave, had been taught to read/write • He became one of the more eloquent speakers/writers of the abolitionist movement • Angelina and Sarah Grimké were two Southerners who were so angered by slavery that they broke from their family and moved north—even marrying into Northern abolitionist families

  20. The Antislavery Movement • One of the more notable abolitionists was Henry David Thoreau—a writer and philosopher • He refused to pay taxes since the taxes supposedly supported slavery • He advocated “civil disobedience” • His ideas were later adopted by Mohandas Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. • How did Garrison and Douglass attempt to end slavery?

  21. The Antislavery Movement • So why did so many people support slavery if it was being considered morally wrong? • Southerners argued that slavery was necessary • The basis of their ability to produce so many crops was the fact that they had cheap labor • The North benefited from the crops since they were largely responsible for shipping and banking • The big argument was wage versus slave labor • Would you rather have no freedom but basic needs met (food, shelter, clothing) • Or, have freedom but have to struggle to find food, clothing, and shelter?

  22. The Antislavery Movement • Many Northerners did not support abolitionism • They drug William Lloyd Garrison with a rope by the neck through the streets of Boston • They interrupted the Grimké wedding to burn down the antislavery meeting hall • The issue divided America deeply • Congress instituted a Gag Rule to keep the topic from coming up • The issue became a major sticking point in the states’ rights battle

  23. The Women’s Movement • In the early 1800s, women could not own property, hold office, or vote • Women did not have formal education, and in the rare case of divorce, the husband got the children • Women did lead reform movements, such as temperance, prison reform, and asylum reform • One noted leader was Sojourner Truth, a former slave who spoke on abolitionist issues

  24. The Women’s Movement • Some women did chose to join the industrialized work force • They typically lived near the factories • They sent their wages back to their husbands and fathers • They even had a labor union

  25. The Women’s Movement • Because many middle class women were able to afford house keepers, they spent much of their day discussing ways to improve society • Women felt that if they could get rights for slaves, then perhaps their rights would also follow • Angelina Grimké argued that men and women were equal in God’s eyes

  26. The Women’s Movement • Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton started the Anti Slavery Society • They would later organize the women’s rights convention held at Seneca Falls (aka the Seneca Falls Convention) • Even Fredrick Douglass attended, and the delegates adopted the Declaration of Sentiments

  27. The Women’s Movement • Seneca Falls birthed the beginning of the Women’s Rights Movement • It inspired leaders such as Susan B. Anthony to push forward in their efforts