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Chapter 6 Federalist Vs Democratic- Republican

Chapter 6 Federalist Vs Democratic- Republican

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Chapter 6 Federalist Vs Democratic- Republican

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  1. Chapter 6Federalist Vs Democratic- Republican First Political Parties By J. Renee Glenn, JD American History

  2. George Washington Speech

  3. Father of America • George Washington • Hoped to retire from public life after the ratification of the Constitution • Friends urged him to run for president • Believed he would make an excellent leader • Agreed because he felt it was his duty • January 1789 – delegates from the 11 states that had ratified the Constitution formed the 1st electoral college – made up the electors who vote for president • Washington unanimously elected • John Adams – 1st Vice-President

  4. The 1st President What were George Washington’s major achievements while in the Presidency? • Northwest frontier war w/ Native Americans was won • Britain surrendered its forts in the Northwest • Spain opened the Mississippi to American commerce George Washington’s Cabinet Thomas Jefferson – Secretary of State Alexander Hamilton – Treasury Secretary General Henry Knox – Secretary of War Edmund Randolph – Attorney General

  5. Who are Bush’s Cabinet members? • Homework – part 1 Print out or write out a list of President Bush’s current cabinet members

  6. Bill of Rights • 1791 – 10 Amendments to the Constitution goes into effect • 1st 8 – offered safeguards for individual rights against actions of the federal government • 9th – states that people have rights other than the ones listed • 10th – states that powers not specifically reserved for the Federal Government would be reserved for the states

  7. A Snapshot of America in 1790 • Nearly 4 Million Americans • Most lived in rural areas & worked on farms • Some lived in towns as craftspeople, laborers, or merchants • Farmers wanted fair tax laws & the right to settle western lands • Merchants wanted simpler trade laws • Manufacturers wanted laws to protect them from foreign competition

  8. Cities • Only New York City & Philadelphia had populations greater than 25,000 • New York City served as the 1st U.S. capital

  9. Financing Our New Government • By 1789 the government needed additional monies to continue to operate • Faced a national debt – money the U.S. owed to lenders • Owed $11.7 million to foreign creditors • Owed $40.4 million to U.S. Citizens • Some Revolutionary debt was in the form of bonds – certificates that represent money • These bonds had been issued w/ the promise of interest • Bondholders feared that the government would not buy back the bonds • Speculators (individuals who bought the bonds @ a low value in hopes the value would rise) – purchased the bonds from individuals for below value prices

  10. 2 very different plans • James Madison & Alexander Hamilton developed 2 very different plans to help finance the government • James Madison felt the government should raise money by taxing imports from other countries • Tariff of 1789 • Made all importers pay 5% of value of their cargo when they landed in the U.S. • Shippers required to pay a tax depending on how much their ships carried • Angered many Southern planters; began feeling the government didn’t have their best interest in mind

  11. Hamilton’s Financial Program • Born in the West Indies • Went to American colonies for his education • Practiced law • Secretary of Treasurer under Washington’s administration • Wanted to pay off the foreign debt immediately • Buy back bonds @ full prices • Bank of the U.S. (founded 1791, closed 1811) • Believed that bond owners would have a stake in the government’s success & be willing to loan $$ in the future • Supported the Tariff of 1789 • Believed in the government’s ability to borrow money

  12. Jefferson & Madison • Opposed this Hamilton’s plan because they felt that paying “full-value” on bonds would reward the speculators • Southerners were upset because Northerners owned the bonds while the tax money used to pay off the debt would come from the South. • 1790 Southerners were convinced to vote for Hamilton’s plan in return for the relocation of the U.S. capital to a southern location called the District of Columbia

  13. Hamilton's Plan Passes • Hamilton also asked Congress to create a national bank so that the government could manage its debts & interest payments • Objections • Southerners felt on the Northerners could afford the bank’s stock • Madison felt Congress couldn’t est. a bank because it was not with in the Constitution’s enumerated powers – powers specifically mentioned in the Constitution

  14. Bank of the United States • Hamilton argued that the bank fell under the “elastic clause” (necessary & proper clause) – powers that are implied & not specifically mentioned in the Constitution • Congress passes the bill forming the bank

  15. Whiskey Rebellion • 1791 – Hamilton proposes a tax on the manufacturing of American whiskey • Passed by Congress • Outraged western farmers • Result: • Whiskey Rebellion begins – 1794 • Washington sent 13,000 troops to stop the rebellion

  16. Whiskey Rebellion

  17. Hamilton Vs. Jefferson The split in Congress over Hamilton’s financial plan resulted in the formation of two political parties: Federalist & Democratic-Republicans.

  18. Federalist vs. Republicans, cont.

  19. Washington’s Foreign Policy • France Revolution – (French Civil War) began in 1789, shortly after Washington was inaugurated • Americans were divided over the French Rev. • Federalist opposed it because of the violence • Republicans supported it because of the fight for liberty • 1793 – French declared war on Britain • Forced Washington to issue a proclamation stating that the U.S. would remain neutral – friendly & impartial between the 2 • British navy intercepted neutral ships, including American ships carrying goods to France

  20. Jay’s Treaty • Wanting to avoid war, Washington sent John Jay to Britain to find a solution • Gave Britain the right to seize American cargo heading to France • Britain gave America “Most Favored Nation” status – would not discriminate against when they traded w/ Britain • Set the w/drawal of British soldiers from posts in the American west • Est. a commission to settle outstanding border issues between the U.S. & Canada • Est. a commission to resolve American losses in British ship seizures & Loyalist losses during the American Revolution

  21. Americans object . . . • Missing from the treaty • a refrain from arrest the arrest of American ships • impressment of American seamen • Hamilton was stoned by an angry crowd in N.Y. • Senate ratified w/ provision limiting trade in the British West Indies • Washington reluctantly approves • Raised concerns in Spain • Felt that the British & Americans might join forces to take over Spanish holdings in N. Am.

  22. Fallout over Treaty • Although still admired, Washington came under sharp attack • John Jay resigned from the Supreme Court • Led to Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) “Let it be remembered that civil liberty consist, not in a right to every man to do just what he pleases, but it consist in an equal right to all citizens to have, enjoy, and do, in peace, security & without molestation, whatever the equal & constitutional laws of the country admit to be consistent w/ the public good.” ~John Jay

  23. Pinckney’s Treaty 1795 • Thomas Pinckney negotiated a treaty w/ Spain • Recognized U.S. borders @ the Mississippi & the 31st Parallel – northern border of Florida (Spanish possession) • Agreed to allow the U.S. free navigation of MS River to the Gulf of Mexico & granted the right of deposit in New Orleans for 3 years • Both nations agreed not to incite Na. Am. Attacks against each other • Supported by Western farmers

  24. Western Expansion • Americans moved in large numbers to the area between Appalachian Mountains & the MS River because of abundant land, fertile soil, wide rivers, & a variety of fish game. • Increase of white settlers led to tension w/ Na. Am. • Little Turtle – chief of the Miami people of the Northwest Territory - formed a confederacy of several Na. Am. Groups against the white settlers. • After 2 battles in which American troops were defeated, Na. Am. Resistance was put down by AM. Troops under General Anthony Wayne • 1795 – 12 Na. Am. Nations signed the Treaty of Greenville. • Na. Am. Gave up parts of what later became Ohio & Indiana for a yearly payment of $10,000 from the federal government. • Treaty allowed for more settlers to move into the region

  25. Washington’s Farewell Address Washington retires from office after being irritated by party politics & attacks on his character. Washington’s Farewell Address • Listed the benefits of the federal government “The unity of government . . . is a main pillar in the edifice [foundation] of your real independence . . . of your tranquility @ home, your peace abroad; of your safety, of your property, of that very liberty which you so highly prize.” • Warns against the party system “It (parties) agitates (stirs up) the Community w/ ill-founded jealousies & false alarms; kindles the animosity (anger) of one . . . Against another. . . .it opens the door to foreign influence & corruption . . .”

  26. Continued . . . • Stressed the importance of religion & morality “Where the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths (if we leave religion out of it), which are the instruments of investigation in Courts of Justice?” • Warned against misuse of public credit “Cherish public credit. . . .One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible. . . Avoid the accumulation of debt. . . .” • Warned against permanent foreign alliances “It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances w/ any portion of the foreign world . . .” • On an over-powerful military establishment “. . . Avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments, which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to liberty, & which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to Republican Liberty.”

  27. John Adams V/S Thomas Jefferson

  28. Election of 1796 49% 68 Who won the election of 1796?

  29. XYZ Affair • French, angry over Jay’s Treaty, stopped American ships & seized goods while en route to Britain. • Federalist called for war against France • Instead, Adams sent negotiators to France. • Tensions increased. Why? • France demanded bribes from the Americans before they would negotiate, in what became known as the XYZ Affair

  30. Quasi-War w/ France • 1798 – Congress suspended trade w/ France & ordered the navy to capture French ships. = undeclared war at sea was called the Quasi-War. • Convention of 1800 - negotiations w/ France led to an agreement • U.S. gave up all claims against France for damages to American shipping. • France released the U.S. from the Treaty of 1778 Quasi-War ENDED!!

  31. FYI - The Cutters First Coast Guard, known as “the cutters”, was established in 1790.

  32. Alien & Sedition Acts • Federalist pushed through 4 laws know as the Alien & Sedition Acts – were designed to destroy Jefferson’s Democratic-Republicans • Stated: • 3 were aimed @ aliens – people living in the country who are not citizens • Immigrants could not become citizens for 14 years (rather than 5), thus weakening the republican party. (Why? French & Irish immigrants tended to vote republican.) • Gave the President the power to imprison or deport immigrants deemed dangerous to the U.S. w/out a trial. • Prevented Sedition – an incitement leading to a rebellion. • Made it unlawful to say or print anything false or scandalous against the government or its officers. • Results: • These Sedition Acts virtually destroyed the First Amendment rights outline under the Constitution. • Bolstered support for the republicans in 1800 election.

  33. States respond . . . Null & Void • VA – introduced interposition – “ . . . If the fed’l gov.t did something unconstitutional , the state could interpose between the fed’l gov.t & the people to stop the illegal action • Kentucky – advanced the theory of nullification – “ . . . If the fed’l gov.’t passed an unconstitutional law, the states had the right to nullify the law or declar it invalid

  34. A Hot Race . . . Election of 1800 • Closely contested & revealed a flaw in the system for selecting a president • Each state chooses electors who cast 2 votes • 1 for president • 1 for vice-president • Jefferson & Burr had same # of electoral votes • Constitution states the House of Representatives votes for president when there is a tie

  35. Election Results Who won? Federalist supported Burr  resulted in tie votes more than 30 times • Hamilton urged his followers in the Federalist Party to vote for Jefferson  another tie resulted • Feb. 1801 – Jefferson promised NOT to dismantle Hamilton’s financial system • Jefferson won the presidency by 1 vote • Result: proved that power in the U.S. could be peacefully transferred

  36. 1800 Presidential Election 47% 65 53% 73 Based upon this map, who won the election of 1800?

  37. Jefferson Takes Office • Had a less formal style of presidency • Did not over-turn all of the Federalist policies • tried to integrate Republican ideas into policies that the Federalist had already put in place • Began paying off the federal debt • Cut government spending • Did away w/ the Whiskey tax, and . . . • Planned to use local militia instead of a standing army

  38. Midnight Judges Judiciary Act of 1801 • Passed by the Federalist majority • Created 16 new federal judges • Before leaving office – Adams appointed Federalist to these new positions Result: • Jefferson & Republicans were unhappy that Federalist controlled the courts • After taking office – Congress repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801 – doing away w/ the “midnight judges” & their offices • Justice Samuel Chase’s impeachment – est. clear guidelines that judges couldn’t be removed from office simply because Congress disagreed w/ their decisions

  39. Marbury vs. Madison John Marshall • Chief Justice of the Supreme Court • Appointed by John Adams • Served for 34 years • Made the S. Ct. a powerful & independent branch of the fed.’ gov.t How? 1803 – Marbury v. Madison – est. the Court’s right of judicial review – the power to decide whether laws passed by Congress were constitutional & to strike down laws that were not.

  40. Louisiana Purchase • Jefferson supported the idea of the U.S. expanding west – believed that a republic could survive only if most people owned their own land • 1800 French leader Napoleon Bonaparte convinced Spain to give LA back to France • He wanted to rebuild France’s empire in North America • U.S. feared that French control of the region would block U.S. western expansion • French control of New Orleans could interfere w/ American trade along the Mississippi River • Jefferson told the U.S. Ambassador to France to make an offer to buy New Orleans & West Florida from France

  41. Louisiana Purchase, Cont. • A surprising offer – • French officials offered to sell all of Louisiana to the United States. • Why? • France needed the money to finance a war against Britain. • Napoleon also hoped that U.S. control of Louisiana could challenge Britain’s power in North America • U.S. purchases Louisiana for $15 million • Jefferson feared that he did not have the constitutional power to buy Louisiana, but agreed to the purchase because it was the country’s best interest • Louisiana Purchase of 1803 almost doubled the size of the U.S.

  42. America expands west . . .

  43. Lewis & Clark Expedition

  44. Lewis & Clark Expedition • Prior to the purchase, Jefferson sent Meriweather Lewis & Lt. William Clark to explore the Louisiana Territory • May 1804 – the expedition set out from St. Louis, in present day Missouri • Sacagawea, a Shoshone Native American woman, assisted the group • They crossed Great Plains & Rocky Mountains – reaching the Pacific in November 1805 • Returned – September 1806 • Expedition Results: • Taught about western lands & paths • Est. relations w/ several Native American groups • Collected valuable scientific information

  45. War of 1812

  46. Define the following words: • Impressment • Embargo • Non-Intercourse Act • War Hawks • Nationalism

  47. War of 1812 • Causes: • Britain's refusal to surrender western forts promised to the United States in the 1783 Treaty of Paris • Belief that Britain was arming North American Indians fighting against Americans on the western frontier. • Stopping of American ships by the Royal Navy on the high seas to search for deserters: i.e. British warship Leopard stopped the American warship Chesapeake to search for deserters; the Chesapeake refused & 3 Americans were killed