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Limestone Feedstock

Limestone Feedstock

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Limestone Feedstock

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  1. Limestone Feedstock Abby Svee and Jake Marynik

  2. Limestone Major Products

  3. Lime Manufacturing The basic lime process Quarrying limestone Preparation of limestone for kiln Calcining limestone CaCO3 (s)CaO(s) + CO2(g) Hydrating limestone CaO(s) + H20(l)Ca(OH)2(aq) Distribution www.lime.org

  4. Basic soda ash process (Solvay Process) Ammonation of Brine Na+Cl-NH4+and OH- ions Formation of carbon dioxide and calcium oxide C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) CaCO3(s)CaO(s) +CO2(g) Solvay tower NH3(g) + H2O(l) + CO2 NH4HCO3(aq) Separation of solid sodium hydrocarbonate Formation of sodium carbonate 2NH4HCO3(aq) Na2CO3 + H2O(g) + CO2(g) Formation of calcium hydroxide CaO(s) + H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq) Regeneration of ammonia 2NH4Cl(aq) + Ca(OH)2 CaCl2 + 2NH3(g) + H2O(g) Soda Ash Manufacturing www.essentialchemicalindustry.org

  5. Lime Economics in Industry • Lime production is deeply dependent on steel industry • Steel industry fluctuates with automobile and housing demand • Lime’s energy intensive production fluctuates with energy prices • More than most other inorganic chemicals www.acclaimmetals.com

  6. Lime Economics in Industry Cont.… From 1970-1975 lime price rose from $12/ton to $28/ton (oil embargo increased energy costs) Lime production dropped 2.4% per year starting in the 1980’s Lime production started rebounding in the 1990’s Presently (2002) commercial value of 45.2 billion pounds is $1.3 billion ArcelorMittal 93.6 million tons (2012) • In millions of tons http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/ch11/final/c11s17.pdf

  7. Soda Ash Economics in Industry • Pyrex, registered trademark of Corning Incorporated • Corning Incorporated reported a Sales increase of 10% in the last quarter of 2013 with increasing periods of sales in prior quarters. • In millions of tons http://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting/documents/pdf/infosheets/sodaashmanufacturing.pdf

  8. References • http://www.lime.org/documents/lime_basics/NLA-how-lime-is-made.pdf • http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/ch11/final/c11s17.pdf • http://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting/documents/pdf/infosheets/sodaashmanufacturing.pdf • http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/soda_ash/ • http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/lime/ • Chenier, Philip J. “Chapter 5.” Survey of Industrial Chemistry. New York, NY: Kluwer Academics/ Plenum, 2002. 354-465. Print. • http://www.corning.com/news_center/news_releases/2013/2013103001.aspx • http://www.worldsteel.org/statistics/top-producers.html • http://corporate.arcelormittal.com/news-and-media/press-releases/2013/nov/07-11-2013