Memory What the heck is going on in there?
Name the Seven Dwarves Take out a piece of paper
Difficulty of Task • Was the exercise easy or difficult. It depends on what factors? • Whether you like Disney movies • how long ago you watched the movie • how loud the people are around you when you are trying to remember
The Memory process • Encoding • Storage • Retrieval
Encoding • The processing of information into the memory system. Typing info into a computer Getting a girls name at a party
Storage • The retention of encoded material over time. Trying to remember her name when you leave the party. Pressing Ctrl S and saving the info.
Retrieval • The process of getting the information out of memory storage. Seeing her the next day and calling her the wrong name (retrieval failure). Finding your document and opening it up.
Turn your paper over. Now pick pick out the seven dwarves. Grouchy Gabby Fearful Sleepy Smiley Jumpy Hopeful Shy Droopy Dopey Sniffy Wishful Puffy Dumpy Sneezy Pop Grumpy Bashful Cheerful Teach Snorty Nifty Happy Doc Wheezy Stubby Poopy
Seven Dwarves Sleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Sneezy, Happy, Doc and Bashful
Did you do better on the first or second dwarf memory exercise? Recall v. Recognition • With recall- you must retrieve the information from your memory (fill-in-the blank tests). • With recognition- you must identify the target from possible targets (multiple-choice tests). • Which is easier?
Records • Andi Bell – memorizing a single deck of cards in 34 seconds • 1840 random digits in one hour • 23.02 packs of cards in one hour • 2889 binary digits in 30 minutes
Flashbulb Memories Beryl Benderly – “It’s as if our nervous system takes a multimedia snapshot of the sounds, sights, smells, weather, emotional climate, even the body postures we experience at certain moments.” • Car accident – 85% • Early romantic experience – 77% • Speak in front of audience – 72% • First date – 57% • 9/11 – 95%
Memory Process • Memory - an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage. • Processes of Memory: • Encoding - the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain’s storage systems. • Storage - holding onto information for some period of time. • Retrieval - getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used.
Models of Memory LO 6.2 Different models of how memory works • Information-processing model - model of memory that assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of three stages. • Levels-of-processing model - model of memory that assumes information that is more “deeply processed,” or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of the word or words, will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time. • Parallel distributed processing (PDP) model - a model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections. Menu
Sensory Memory • The immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system. • Stored just for an instant, and most gets unprocessed. • Examples: • You lose concentration in class during a lecture. Suddenly you hear a significant word and return your focus to the lecture. You should be able to remember what was said just before the key word since it is in your sensory register. • Your ability to see motion can be attributed to sensory memory. An image previously seen must be stored long enough to compare to the new image. Visual processing in the brain works like watching a cartoon -- you see one frame at a time. • If someone is reading to you, you must be able to remember the words at the beginning of a sentence in order to understand the sentence as a whole. These words are held in a relatively unprocessed sensory memory.
Short-Term Memory • Memory that holds a few items briefly. • Seven digits (plus of minus two). • The info will be stored into long-term or forgotten. How do you store things from short-term to long-term? You must repeat things over and over to put them into your long-term memory. Rehearsal
Working Memory(Modern day STM) • Another way of describing the use of short-term memory is called working memory. • Working-Memory has three parts: • Audio • Visual • Integration of audio and visual (controls where you attention lies)
Long-Term Memory • The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
Clive Wearing Clive 13 years later -
How We Encode • Rehearsal • Write down each of the gifts from The Twelve Days of Christmas • Demonstrate the forgetting curve using the data collected
Serial Position Effect • Write down as many Presidents as you can. • Distinguish between same last names President's Chart
What we encode - • Visual vs Auditory • Activity – 24-1
What we encode - • Meaning and Memory Activity • Right half of room – heads down • Left half take a look at this slide • Remember 24-3? • Reproduce the two figures • Compare the drawings with the actual figures • The semantic and visual encoding endured longer
Mnemonic Devices • Method of loci • First letter technique • Richard of York Gains Battles in Vain • Colors of spectrum • My Very Earnest Mother Just Showed Us Nine Planets • Planets in Solar System • On Old Olympia’s Towering Top A Finn and German Vault and Hop • Cranial Nerves
Cranial Nerves • Olfactory, optic, oculomoter, trochlear, tirgeminal, abducens, facial, auditory, glossophyngeal, vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal • Check out: • www.happychild.org.uk/acc/tpr/mne/index.htm
Encoding (automatic or effortful) Meaning (semantic Encoding) Imagery (visual Encoding) Organization Chunks Hierarchies Storage Hierarchies complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories
Percentage who recalled consonants 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 Time in seconds between presentation of contestants and recall request (no rehearsal allowed) Storage-Short Term Memory Short Term Memory • limited in duration and capacity • “magical” number 7+/-2
Storage- Retaining Information Sensory Memory • the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system Iconic Memory • a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli • a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second • Registration of exact representation of a scene Echoic Memory • momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
Storage--Long Term Memory Synaptic changes • Long-term Potentiation • increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation Strong emotions make for stronger memories • some stress hormones boost learning and retention
Storage- Long Term Memory Amnesia- the loss of memory Explicit Memory • memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare • Also called declarative memory • hippocampus- neural center in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage Implicit Memory • retention without conscious recollection • motor and cognitive skills • dispositions- conditioning
Types of long-term memories Explicit (declarative) With conscious recall Implicit (nondeclarative) Without conscious recall Personally experienced events (“episodic memory”) Dispositions- classical and operant conditioning effects Facts-general knowledge (“semantic memory”) Skills-motor and cognitive Storage- Long Term Memory Subsystems
Quick Review • What are the 3 processes?
The Memory process • Encoding • Storage • Retrieval
Quick Review • What are the 3 theories?