GRAMMAR BOOT CAMP http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7kdrsPRZnK8
DEFINE WHAT IS GRAMMAR? According to Dictionary.com, grammar is a set of rules that is applied to a language.
Ms. Valentine’s 10 Parts of Speech Eight parts of speech make up the English language. Noun Adverb Pronoun Verb Adjective Preposition Determiner Conjunction Interjection Appositives
Nouns are words that represent people, places, things, and ideals. PRONOUNS! This gets tricky. Pronouns represent nouns (antecedents). Ian went to English class today. He went to English class today. Above is a personal pronoun. Here are some more: #1 I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me, you #2 him, her, it, us, them #3 my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, our, ours, their, theirs
Pronouns #1 These are pronouns that go in the subject, subjective case pronouns. #2 These are pronouns that go in the object places of the sentence, objective case pronouns. #3 these pronouns represent antecedents that show ownership, possessive case pronouns.
Reflexive Prounouns Have you ever seen “theirself,” “hisself,” “herself?” Why does this sound weird?
RULE: Never use “hisself” or “theirself.” It is a rule that used to be relevant in Old English. Now it is a rule because it is a rule. That is it. USE: Myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, oneself, ourselves, yourself, themselves NOT – hisselfor theirself
Reflexive Pronouns Used as Intensive Pronouns • These are simply used for emphasis. • If Ms. Phillips was really proud of organizing her house, she might say, “I organized my house myself!” • Each group write down four sentences that have intensive pronouns in them! • 4 MINUTES! GO!
Demonstrative pronouns This, that, these, those They “demonstrate” or “point out” certain nouns. Theseare my children. (Children is the antecedent) that is my donut. (Donut is the antecedent) This is going to be the best week ever! (Week is the antecedent) Those are my chocolates. (Chocolate is the antecedent)
Indefinite pronouns For the most part, I would love for you to forget the following exists when writing….. Any, anyone, all, each, everybody, everyone, anybody, some, someone, none, no one, both, etc. These words make sweeping generalizations too easy to make or are too vague. Avoid these!
THEIR The English language has changed so much that we often have rules that don’t seem to make much sense anymore. We also have some gaps in the language. What is wrong with the following sentence? Nobodyknows that eating chocolate-broccoli muffins is a good way to provide their bodies with vitamin C.
Nobody knows that eating chocolate-broccoli muffins is a good way to provide their bodies with vitamin C. • “NOBODY” is actually a SINGULAR pronoun. (Body vs. Bodies) • Here are some more singular pronouns that we think of as plural that are actually singular. Any, anyone, each, everybody, everyone, anybody, someone, no one What happens when we need to write a sentence like this: Anyone who wants to join must sign ________ name on the paper.
Gender neutral, singular pronoun • “Their” is used for plural possession. • No word in the English that can close the gap for gender neutral singular posession. Thus, we say: Anyone who wants to join must sign his or her name on the paper. Nobody knows that eating chocolate-broccoli muffins is a good way to provide his or herbody with vitamin C!
Its, Their, His, Her, His or Her • Since we have to match the pronoun with the antecedent, we need to know our options! GenderSingular Plural Masculine His Their Feminine Her Their Neutral Its/ his or her Their
Adjectives • These words modify nouns. • Adjectives answer the questions: Which? What kind? How many? • Pretty girl • Fast car • Smelly trash • Ringing phone • Fun homework • Spirited teacher • Excited Edison Eagles • The dog ran along the road. • The spry, young dog ran along the dusty, lonely dirt road. • The old, ragged dog ran along the busy, deadly street.
Is-it-an-adjective test • Is “ragged” and adjective? • Can you put it in front of a noun? • The ragged girl • The ragged street • The ragged bike • YES! Then, it must be an adjective!
Adverbs • Adverbs modify verbs, adverbs, and adjectives. They answer the questions: Where? When? How? To what extent? • Once, Babe Ruth playfully pointed to the spot where he would hit a home run. • The exceedingly beautiful woman turned everyone’s eyes. • The play put on by the high school drama club was poorly done.
VERBS There are three main types of verbs. • Action Verbs: The class drove to the fair. • Be Verbs: The flower smells pretty. • Modal Verbs: The class should have turned in their work, but they were busy with Edison Week. • Linking Verbs: The flower is pretty. • Verbs tell the reader what the subject is doing.
Determiners • We are going to mainly worry about one kind of determiner. • Articles: the, a, an #1 “a” vs. “an” #2 “a” vs. “the” • What is the difference between the two words in #1? • What about #2?
Prepositions have an uninformative definition. We are going to just recall some of them. Here are some samples. About Above Across After Against Among Around As At Before Behind Below Beneath Beside Besides Between Beyond By Down During Except For From In Inside Into Like Near Of Off On Out Outside Over Since Through Throughout To Toward Under Until Up Upon With Without
WOW! HOLY COW! GOODNESS! Well, I am so happy you are here today! Ugh, I really didn’t want to get up this morning. Shucks, I think I forgot my pencil. These words are all used to show emotion, and they do not fit into any other part of speech. They are called interjections.
But, and, or, nor, yet, for, although…. • Hooking up words and phrases and clauses • Joining words: • apples and pears, • teachers but not students • neither chicken nor beef • either an essay or a presentation
Combining Phrases with Conjunctions! • At school and at home • Hitting the books and sleeping eight hours • They will fly straight home or stop overnight in Dubuque.
Combining Sentences with Conjunctions • We went to the fair, and we had a good time. • Elmo is mean, and I don’t like him. • I disapprove of her spending money on lottery tickets, and I told her so.
Appositives • An appositive is anounor noun phrasethat renames another noun right beside it. • The insect, a cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table. • The insect, a large cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table. • The insect, a large cockroach with hairy legs, is crawling across the kitchen table. • The insect, a large, hairy-legged cockroach that has spied my bowl of oatmeal, is crawling across the kitchen table.
Sentence Patterns in English • 1) Noun + Be Verb + Adverb (SC) • 2) Noun + Be Verb + Adjective (SC) • 3) Noun + Be Verb + Noun (SC) • 4) Noun + Linking Verb + Adjective (SC) • 5) Noun + Linking Verb + Noun (SC) • 6) Noun + Action Verb • 7) Noun + Action Verb + Direct Object • 8) Noun + Action Verb + Direct Object + Indirect Object • 9) Noun + Action Verb + Direct Object + Adjective (OC) • 10) Noun + Action Verb + Direct Object + Noun (OC)
Be Verb Sentence Patterns • 1) Noun + Be Verb + Adverb (SC) • 2) Noun + Be Verb + Adjective (SC) • 3) Noun + Be Verb + Noun (SC) • Someone is there. The bag is on the bus. • She is pretty. It is as beautiful as the stars. • He is a doctor. She is a actor on Broadway.
Linking Verb Sentence Patterns • 4) Noun + Linking Verb + Adjective (SC) • 5) Noun + Linking Verb + Noun (SC) • 4) The students seem intelligent. • 5) The students became scholars.
Intransitive Verb • 6) Noun + Action Verb • 6) The students tested. The students tested in the classroom. The students studied. The students studiedwith each other.
Transitive Verb Patterns • 7) Noun + Action Verb + Direct Object • 8) Noun + Action Verb + Direct Object + Indirect Object • 7) The students studiedtheir assignment. • 8) The students gave the professor their homework.
Transitive verb patterns with OC • 9) Noun + Action Verb + Direct Object + Adjective (OC) • 10) Noun + Action Verb + Direct Object + Noun (OC) • 9) The students considerthe teacher intelligent. • 10) The students considerthe course a challenge.