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Boot Camp

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Boot Camp

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  1. Boot Camp 2/24/04

  2. Sea Biscuit

  3. Racing Heart?

  4. Intelligent Salivary Glands • The role of salivation on digestion • Saliva production = automatic, no conscious control or learning • Unconditioned Reflex • Consistent within species • But, learned from experience in lab to expect food following signals • Conditioned Reflex • Extremely variable

  5. How it all began… Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) = FOOD Unconditioned Response (UCR) = SALIVATION Conditioned Stimulus (CS) = FOOTSTEPS Conditioned Response (CR) = SALIVATION

  6. 3 Simple Steps • UCSUCR • NS + UCSUCR • REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT • CS CR

  7. Classical Conditioning • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) • Reflex-like, non-learned, automatically causes response • Unconditioned Response (UCR) • Automatic response • Conditioned Stimulus (CS) • Previously neutral, repeatedly precedes US • Conditioned Response (CR) • Transferred: now associated with CS

  8. Pavlov ring a bell? • Food (UCS) salivation (UCR) • Metronome (NS) + Food (UCS) salivation (UCR) REPEAT * 5-20 times • Metronome (CS)salivation (UCR) AND: Vanilla odor + acid salivation Rotating Object + food salivation

  9. Key Points • Can explain a wide range of behavior • Advertising, food aversion, phobias • Focuses on reflexive behavior • Not under voluntary control • Any reflex can be conditioned to NS • Eye blink—door bell • Sexual arousal—strawberries • HR increases– flashing blue light (puff of air into eye) (romantic caresses) (sudden noise)

  10. Reflexes & emotions Real Life • Advertising (sexy images, music, celebs) • Phobias, addiction • Food Aversions • Credit cards, Logos & spending • Ranchers • Coyotes & wolves killing sheep • UCS = lithium chloride; UCR = nausea • Health & well being?

  11. Ader & Cohen (1985) • Drug (cyclophosphamide) – Weakened immune system • Saccharine H2O + Drug --- W.I.S • Repeated… • Saccharine H2O --- W.I.S • Chemotherapy (environmental cues– W.I.S) • What about enhancing? • Smell of camphor, sherbet & adrenaline…

  12. But usually we buy, study, work… • We “OPERATE” on the environment to produce an effect • Voluntary, complex, goal-directed behaviors • Any behavior that leads to a “satisfying state of affairs” is more likely to occur again; those that lead to an “annoying state of affairs” are less likely • Law of Effect

  13. Animal problem solving • Thorndike’s Puzzle Box • Hungry Cats in cage • Trap door operated by lever • Raw fish outside cage • Sniff, scratch, push, dig… bang on lever • Repeat… efficiency

  14. Thorndike (1911) • Just like socialization • Through rewards and punishment, parents train kids • Learning how to produce desirable outcomes = adaptive

  15. Operant Conditioning • Skinner Box • Stimulus light • Response bar/ pecking key • Dry food pellets, water • Metal grid for electric shocks • Recording instrument • Reinforcement(instead of reward/ satisfaction) • Any stimulus that increases likelihood of response • Punishment • Any stimulus that decreases likelihood

  16. Behaviors considered uniquely human can be learned by lowly creatures like rats and pigeons • Not superstition! • Thinking, knowing, reasoning, belief

  17. Good luck charms? • People presume connexn between behavior & reinforcing consequence • Behavior must have been accidentally reinforced • Rolling dice certain way – good roll… • 40% college athletes! • Pigeons • Non-contingent rewards

  18. Several days • Highly motivated pigeons • Do what pigeons do • For a few minutes… every 15 seconds = pellets

  19. They became “superstitious” “One bird conditioned to turn counter clockwise, making 2-3 turns between reinforcements.” “Another thrust its head into corner of cage” “One developed a tossing response as if placing its head beneath an invisible bar and lifting it repeatedly”

  20. “Human bowler who has released a ball, but continues to behave as if he was controlling it by twisting and turning his arm…” • Rationally – no effect, food comes every 15 seconds • “The bowler’s effect has no behavior on the ball, but the behavior of the ball has an effect on the bowler”

  21. Problem- must wait for behavior to reward… • E.g. training dog to roll-over • Shaping • Reinforcing behaviors increasingly similar to desired behavior • E.g. making me lecture from corner • Extinction • Without reinforcement, behavior fades • (in C.C. repeat CS w/out US)

  22. More problems- not enough pellets! • Partial Reinforcement • Not EVERY response must be reinforced • Coke Machine vs. Slot Machine • If don’t get rewarded… walk away? • Strengthens later resistance to extinction • 4 different schedules

  23. Vary time of interval • Fixed-Interval Schedule • Studying starts slow, increases @ midterms, trails off after, picks up @ finals • Variable Interval Schedule • Pop quizzes

  24. Vary # responses required • Fixed-Ratio • Administer reinforcement after a fixed number of responses • Frequent flyer programs, payment based on fixed # products, CD clubs… • Variable Ratio • Reinforced after average # of responses • Lotteries, radio call-ins, slot machines

  25. Punishment • Strong, immediate, consistent & inescapable • Suppresses unwanted behaviors • BUT • Temporary inhibition (smoking) • Replacement behavior (jail) • “aversive” stimuli = rewarding? • Negative emotions lead to retaliation

  26. Learning by Doing AND by SEEING • Don’t we sometimes learn without direct experience? • Think about 1st time danced, drove a car, programmed a VCR • Learn by watching and imitating others • Observational Learning

  27. Bandura’s (1960) Bobo Doll Study • Expose children to adult models that are aggressive vs. nonaggressive • Will they imitate the aggressive behavior? • 36 boys & 36 girls 3-6 yrs old • 3 groups • Control, aggressive, non-aggressive • All in playroom, adult joins game, highly interesting activities

  28. Tinker Toys, Mallet & Bobo Doll • Aggressive condition • Laid bobo on side • Sat on it, punched it, struck it w/ mallet, kicked it about room • “sock him in the nose; hit him down, throw him in the air; kick him; Pow!”

  29. Test • After 10 minutes… • Frustrated children • New play room with • Tea set, crayons, farm animals, dolls • Dart guns, mallet, Bobo Doll • Physical aggression • Verbal aggression • Non-Imitative aggression

  30. Results • Instances of imitative physical aggression • 38.2- male • 12.7 females • Verbal aggression • Boys -17 times • Girls- 15.7 times • Never with nonaggressive models or control

  31. Observational Learning is not simple • Attention • To behavior and consequences • Retention • Memorable, rehearsed • Reproduction • Motor ability • Motivation • Expectations for reinforcement

  32. Good Models • Attractive • High Status • Similar to selves

  33. LEARNED behavior • Expectations about alcohol as “magic elixir” • Increase social skills • Sexual pleasure • Confidence • Power • Aggression • LEARNED early in life: drinking is fun • Can we separate the learned beliefs from pharmacological effects?

  34. Pretending to be drunk TOLD TONIC ALCOHOL TONIC GIVEN ALCOHOL

  35. TOLD TONIC ALCOHOL TONIC GIVEN ALCOHOL