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  1. (I): Matter in Extremis QCD and Heavy Ion Physics 高能物理前沿暑期论坛 威海 July 31 – August 7, 2006 Xin-Nian Wang Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

  2. Phases of Matter 火水土 (gas) (liquid) (solid) Bose-Einstein condensate, fermionic condensate, superfluids, supersolids, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, liquid crystals, … Quark-gluon Plasma (QGP)

  3. Quark-gluon Plasma (QGP) Discovery of asymptotic freedom of QCD: Gross, Wilczek and Politzer (1973) Weakly interacting quarks at high density and temperature First concept of QGP in early universe, neutron star core and change of the vacuum structure at high temperature Lee and Wick,(1974); Collins and Perry (1975); Baym and Chin (1976)

  4. QCD Theory • SU(3) gauge symmetry (non-Abelian) • Asymptotic freedom at short distance • Confinement at long distance • Scale invariance and anomaly • Chiral symmetry and its spontaneous breaking • Goldstone boson and chiral condensate • UA(1) symmetry and anomaly

  5. Scale Anomaly and invariance at high T Scale anomaly  Break scale invariance

  6. SB limit • Quasi-particle with dispersion given by HTL resummation Blaizot, Iancu, Rebhan ‘2001 • Super Yang-Mills Guber, Klebanov, Tseytlin ‘1998 EOS in Lattice QCD F. Karsch ‘2001 25%

  7. J/Y suppression Confinement-deconfinement SU(3) non-Abelian gauge interaction  confinement Heavy quark potential: Karsch, Laermann and Peikert 2001

  8. QCD Phase Diagram

  9. Strong coupling near Tc

  10. Could there be many other resonances? Shuryak & Zahed ‘04 Resonances in QGP above Tc? Maximum entropy method (MEM) Hatsuda et al Hatsuda et al, 2004 J/Y survives up to T=1.6Tc

  11. f f1 f f2 Cerenkov gluon radiation in near Tc? Koch, Majumder & XNW’05 Dielectric constant

  12. F. Karsch ‘2001 Chiral Symmetry Goldstone bosons (p,K,h) Spontaneously broken:

  13. QCD Phase Diagram

  14. Quark Matter in Neutron Stars Spin-up Spin-down N. Glendenning ‘2000

  15. Heavy-ion Collisions RHIC BNL Au+Au up to 200 GeV/n

  16. EM emission: Medium response to EM interaction g production, J/Y suppression • Hard probes: Medium response to strong interaction Jet quenching • Soft hadrons: Bulk properties of medium, collective behavior Medium Response Dynamic System:

  17. t Energy Density in Heavy-ion Collisions Above the critical density from lattice QCD

  18. Chemical equilibrium at freeze-out

  19. EZDC z x y Impact Parameter (b) ET Centrality of the collisions Non-central Heavy Ion Collisions ET EZDC

  20. Ideal Hydro calculation Pressure gradient anisotropy Elliptic Flow

  21. Constraint on thermalization time Heinz ‘04 Constraint on shear viscosity: Teaney ‘03 H2O : A perfect fluid? Ideal Hydrodynamic

  22. Transport: Kubo relation Shear viscosity Energy-momentum tensor in microscopic picture

  23. ? Kapusta, Csernai & McLerran Viscosity of QCD Matter • Hadron gas at low temperature: • Chiral perturbation theory: • QGP at high temperature: • Perturbative QCD Prakash et al Chen & Nakano Arnold, Moore,Yaffe

  24. Small viscosity in SYM Policastro, Son & Starinets ‘02 Phase transition or strong coupling? Is it possible to measure h/s from experiments?

  25. n = number of constituent quarks Quark Coalescence Rec. Models Hwa & Yang Fries, Muller, Bass Ko et al

  26. Bifurcation of Spectra Constituent quark recombination promote baryon production

  27. q Index of refraction Velocity of sound: Shock Wave or Cherenkov Radiation PHENIX

  28. Dx Orbital angular momentum

  29. n p pf xT Quark Polarization Polarized cross section: Zuo-tang Liang & XNW PRL 94(2005)

  30. Au+Au @ 200GeV (20-70%) Au+Au @ 62GeV (0-80%) STAR Preliminary STAR Preliminary (GeV/c)

  31. Summary • Broken symmetries and their restoration at high T accompanied by phase transitions • Intriguing properties of QGP near the critical point • Study of soft hadrons from RHIC experiments: • High initial energy density above Tc reached • Chemical equilibrium at freeze-out • Strong collective flow indicating fluid property with low viscosity • Partonic degree of freedom before hadronization • Many other effects such a global quark polarization provide additional information

  32. (II): Hard Probes of Dense Matter QCD and Heavy Ion Physics 高能物理前沿暑期论坛 威海 July 31 – August 7, 2006 Xin-Nian Wang Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

  33. EM emission: Medium response to EM interaction • Hard probes: Medium response to strong interaction Jet quenching Medium Response Dynamic System: • Soft hadrons: Bulk properties of medium, collective behavior

  34. Bjorken’82, XNW & Gyulassy’92 Jets in heavy-ion collisions pQCD leading particle q q leading particle

  35. Absorption properties Compute assisted Correction Calibrated source QGP pQCD p+p, p+A Expansion dynamics dE/dx Jet Tomography

  36. v Final rad. Formation time Initial rad. Landau-Pomeranchuck-Midgal interference LPM interference in EM Radiation EM field carried by a fast moving electron EM Radiation by scattering: Interference between initial and final state radiation

  37. pi pf k QED y 0 pi pf QCD Gluon multiple scattering (BDMP’96) pi pf c k a y 0 Radiation in QCD: Colors matter k

  38. Suppression of leading particles(Huang, XNW’96) (Guo & XNW’00) Modified Jet Fragmentation

  39. e- Modified frag. function Parton energy loss: A twisted story

  40. Quark energy loss pT broadening (Guo’98) Modified fragmentation function Guo & XNW(2000)

  41. Detailed balance: thermal absorption Enke Wang& XNW, PRL87(2001) Thermal absorption important at lower E

  42. Single hadron suppression

  43. Centrality Dependence

  44. Dihadron suppression

  45. e- Jet quenching in hot and cold nuclear matter Enke Wang & XNW, PRL 89 (2002) in Au nuclei

  46. Suppression of away-side jet Initial Density about 30 times of that in a Cold Au Nucleus

  47. Au+Au 0-10% preliminary STAR, PRL 93 (2004) 252301 Cones, Ridges & the Medium

  48. A Pedestrian Question: What jet quenching really measures?