1 / 39


EARTH MATERIALS. I. EARTH’S FORMATION II. EARTH’S STRUCTURE III. MINERALS IV. ROCKS. The EVOLUTION of EARTH (4.6 byr old). Partially homogenous accretion theory. differentiation. PLANETARY EVOLUTION. PLANETARY EVOLUTION. Heat sources Collisions Compression – gravity

Télécharger la présentation


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript


  2. The EVOLUTION of EARTH (4.6 byr old) Partially homogenous accretion theory differentiation



  5. Heat sources • Collisions • Compression – gravity • Radioactive elements

  6. Density = how tightly packed Density = Mass/Volume 8-65km Mantle density 3.2 - 5.0 g/cm3 630km 2290km 1820km 1600km Core density 10.8 g/cm3 Figure 11-2

  7. EARTH’S CRUST Composition of the Crust O- Oxygen 47% Si- Silicon 28% 75% of crust Al- Aluminum 8.1% Fe- Iron 5.0% Ca- Calcium 3.6% - nutrient Na- Sodium 2.8% - nutrient K - Potassium 2.6% - nutrient Mg- Magnesium 2.1% - nutrient

  8. Crust Sima = ocean Sial = continent FIGURE 11-2

  9. MINERALS • In the most general sense a mineral can be defined as a naturally occurring solid, with a definite (but not fixed) chemical composition, and a highly ordered atomic arrangement.

  10. Natural vs. manufactured diamond

  11. OLIVINE = (Mg, Fe)2SiO4

  12. Quartz

  13. Fractional Crystallization Minerals to Rock FIGURE 11-7

  14. SEM image Olivine Mineral Growth Forming Basalt

  15. Bowen’s Reaction Series K, Mg, Fe, Al, Si SiO2, K, Al, Si K, Mg, Fe, Al, Si Na, Al, Ca, Si Mg, Fe, Al, Si Mg, Fe, Si Ca, Al, Si Mg, Fe

  16. Rock Cycle FIGURE 11-6

  17. Igneous extrusive Igneous intrusive FIGURE 11-7

  18. Felsic Mafic Table 11-2

  19. Rock Cycle FIGURE 11-6

  20. lithification

  21. Sandstone (CaCO3)

  22. ROCKS SEDIMENTARY ROCKS • Sedimentary rocks form in layers. These layers are called beds or stratum and the separations between strata are known as bedding planes.

  23. ROCKS SEDIMENTARY ROCKS • Sed. rocks are further broken down into 3 categories: Clastic, Chemical, & Organic. • Clastic sed. rocksform by fragments of pre-existing rocks. • Examples of clastic sed. rocks are sandstone, shale, and conglomerate.

  24. Sandstone Shale Siltstone Conglomerate

  25. ROCKS SEDIMENTARY ROCKS • Chemical sed. rocks= mineral grains are directly precipitated out of solution (limestone and dolomite). • Organic sedimentary= rocks consist of the remains of organisms (coal and limestone).

  26. Neversink, Alabama

  27. Organic limestone (coquina)

  28. Rock Cycle FIGURE 11-6

  29. ROCKS METAMORPHIC ROCKS • Metamorphism occur by two processes: (1) contact metamorphism (a magma intrusion bakes or recrystallizes rock in a localized area) Or… (2) regional metamorphism where large scale deformation occurs from large scale compression or heating in areas.

  30. ROCKS METAMORPHIC ROCKS • Meta. rocks broken down into 2 groups: 1. Foliated meta. rocks Examples of foliated meta. rocks = gneiss & slate. 2. Non-foliated meta. rocks Examples of non-foliated metamorphic rocks are marble and quartzite.

  31. Baklava (filo dough) Slate Gneiss (layering) Neopolitan ice cream

  32. Gneiss

  33. Quartzite

More Related