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Earth Materials

Earth Materials

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Earth Materials

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  1. Earth Materials • The cycle of rock change • The Crust and its Composition • Igneous Rocks • Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks • Metamorphic Rocks

  2. Different Rocks • Rocks vary in two ways: • The minerals contained within • In what proportions the minerals are present These difference stem from the way they were created and determine how they are named

  3. The Cycle of Rock Change Earth materials are cycled and recycled by Earth processes over geologic time In the surface environment, rocks weather into sediment In the deep environment, heat and pressure transform sediment into rock (eventually exposed at the surface)

  4. Earth Materials • The cycle of rock change • The Crust and its Composition • Igneous Rocks • Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks • Metamorphic Rocks

  5. The Lithosphere (crust): Thin outermost layer

  6. The Crust and its Composition Elements of the crust are combined in inorganic chemical compounds called minerals

  7. The Crust and its Composition Minerals combine to form Rocks! (naturally occurring inorganic compound) (assemblage of minerals in a solid state) 1 mm

  8. Different mineral combinations create 3 major classes of rocks: • Igneous • Sedimentary and • Metamorphic rocks

  9. …Law of Conservation of Mass…

  10. Earth Materials • The cycle of rock change • The Crust and its Composition • Igneous Rocks • Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks • Metamorphic Rocks

  11. Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks form when liquid molten material cools and solidifies • Two types: 1. Intrusive igneous rocks 2. Extrusive igneous rocks Magma Vs Lava

  12. Intrusive Igneous Rocks • Magma solidifies below the Earth’s surface • They cool slowly and therefore develop larger mineral crystals visible to the eye • Coarse-textured

  13. IG4e_11_06 Intrusive Igneous • very durable, resistant to erosion Granite Diorite

  14. Intrusive Igneous:The Sierra Nevada Mountains

  15. Extrusive (volcanic)Igneous Rocks • Lava Solidifies above ground • Cool very rapidly • Develop smaller, microscopic size crystals • Fine textured

  16. Extrusive Igneous

  17. Igneous Rocks A body of intrusive igneous rock is called a pluton Granite accumulates in enormous plutons, called batholithsan area of several thousand square kilometers

  18. Igneous Rocks A sill is a plate-like pluton formed when magma forces its way between two preexisting rock layers

  19. Igneous Rocks A dike is a wall-like pluton formed when a vertical rock fracture is forced open by magma

  20. Earth Materials • The cycle of rock change • The Crust and its Composition • Igneous Rocks • Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks • Metamorphic Rocks

  21. Sedimentary rocks Sedimentary rocks are formed when sediments are bonded together through compaction and cementation • Only rocks that contain fossils • Have layers/bands and break or crumble easily

  22. Sedimentary Rock Process • Pieces of earth are weathered (broken down/worn away by wind and water or through chemical decomposition) • Weathered pieces are washed downstream where they settle on the bottom of the rivers, lakes, and oceans.

  23. 3. Over time they are layered and pressed down more and more through time, until the bottom layers slowly turn into rock.

  24. Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks Sediment accumulates in more-or less horizontal layers, called strata (beds)

  25. 3 Types of sedimentary rocks • Clastic • Organic • Chemical

  26. Clastic: Pieces of other rocks that have been cemented or compressed together Clasts

  27. 2. Organic: Rocks that form as a direct result of something that was once alive

  28. 3. Chemical: rocks that form as a direct result of some chemical process

  29. Sedimentary rocks create reservoirs for fossil fuel storage

  30. Earth Materials • The cycle of rock change • The Crust and its Composition • Igneous Rocks • Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks • Metamorphic Rocks

  31. Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rocks are formed from preexisting rocks by intense heat and pressure, which alter rock structure and chemical composition

  32. Metamorphic Rocks

  33. Earth Materials • The cycle of rock change • The Crust and its Composition • Igneous Rocks • Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks • Metamorphic Rocks