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Earth Materials

Earth Materials

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Earth Materials

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  1. Earth Materials Mineral and rocks Chapter 2

  2. Group project: choose one • Periods • Cambrian • Ordovician • Silurian • Devonian • Carboniferous • Permian • Triassic • Jurassic • Cretaceous • Tertiary • Quaternary

  3. What is a mineral? • A naturally occurring • inorganic • solid • with a definite (but not fixed) chemical composition • and a highly ordered arrangement

  4. What are minerals made of? • Elements • Most made of 8 elements • O • Si • Al • Fe • Ca • Na • K • Mg

  5. How many minerals are there? • 3,500 minerals identified • Few dozen are common

  6. Quartz • Glassy looking • Most common mineral

  7. Calcite • Building block of limestone • Fizzes with acid (HCl)

  8. What is a rock? • An aggregate of one or more minerals

  9. Groups of rocks • Igneous • Sedimentary • Metamorphic • Characterized by how they form

  10. Groups of rocks • Igneous • Sedimentary • Metamorphic • Characterized by how they form • Related by the rock cycle

  11. Igneous rocks • Crystallize from a molten material • Classified on • Mineral size • composition

  12. Igneous rocks • Intrusive igneous rocks • Cool below ground (slowly) • All minerals visible w/out microscope • Extrusive igneous rocks • Cool above ground (fast) • Most minerals too small to see w/out microscope

  13. Igneous rocks • Intrusive igneous rocks • Extrusive igneous rocks

  14. Intrusive or extrusive?

  15. Slow or fast cooling?

  16. Intrusive or extrusive?

  17. Slow or fast cooling?

  18. Light colored igneous rocks • Granite and rhyolite

  19. Intermediate igneous rocks • Andesite

  20. Dark colored igneous rocks • Gabbro and basalt

  21. Rock Cycle • Igneous rocks break down to form sedimentary rocks

  22. Sedimentary rocks • Detrital sed rock: made of solid particles once part of other rocks • Classified by grain size • Chemical sed rock: made from dissolved material in water • Classified by chemical composition • Biochemical sed rock: made of dead plants and animals

  23. Biochemical, chemical, or detrital?

  24. Biochemical, chemical, or detrital?

  25. Detrital sed rocks • Big particles Conglomerate • Sandstone • Small particles Mudstone (shale)

  26. Detrital sed rocks • Conglomerate • Clue: Particles of lots of different sizes

  27. Detrital sed rocks • Sandstone • Clue: feels sandy

  28. Detrital sed rocks • Mudstone (shale) • Clue: very small particles

  29. Chemical sed rocks • Limestone • Made of calcite • Clues: fizzes with acid and often with fossils

  30. Chemical sed rocks • Rock salt/halite • Clue: tastes salty • Gypsum • Clue: easily scratched, not salty

  31. Biochemical sed rocks • Category of chemical sed rocks • Coal • Limestone if with fossils

  32. Importance of sed rocks • Key to interpreting Earth’s history

  33. How to approach rock ID… • Labeled samples in Felmley 203 • Sedimentary • Does it have particles (rocks, sand, clay) in it? • Fossils? • Neither? • Igneous • Color of rock • Size of minerals

  34. Expectations • Recognize for scavenger hunt • Recognition of name and how formed

  35. Rock Cycle