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Infinitives And Gerunds

Infinitives And Gerunds

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Infinitives And Gerunds

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  1. Infinitives AndGerunds

  2. Infinitives

  3. What is infinitive?

  4. An infinitive= to + thesimple form of a verb.(tosee)

  5. USES OF THE INFINITIVE

  6. A Theinfinitivemay be usedalone.

  7. Webegantowalk.

  8. Theinfinitivemay be used as part of an infinitivephrase.

  9. Webegantowalkdowntheroad.

  10. B Theinfinitivemay be thesubject of a sentence.

  11. 1 Theinfinitiveor an infinitivephrasecan be thesubject of theverbs:appear,be,seem,requireTheinfinitive can be placedfirst:

  12. 1 Toleanout of thewindowis dangerous. Tosavemoneynowseemsimpossible.

  13. 2 But it is moreusualtoplacethepronounit first,andmovetheinfinitiveorinfinitivephrasetotheend of thesentence:

  14. 2 • Itis dangeroustoleanout of thewindow. • Itseemedimpossibletosavemoney.

  15. 2 • Ithere is known as theintroductoryit.Noteitsusewithinterrogatives: • Willit be safetocamphere? • Theitconstruction is necessaryhere.Will+tocampis not posible.

  16. To playthe piano well requires a good sense of music. To go on a trip is very relaxing.

  17. In modern usage, it is more common to begin the sentence with “it”. e.g. It requires a good sense of music to playthe piano well. It is very relaxing to goon a trip. It is very important for students to studyhard.

  18. 3 • Usuallyinfinitiveconstruction of thistypeconsist of • it+ be + adjective + infinitive.

  19. 3 But sometimes a noun can be usedinstead of an adjective: Itis a crime/a mistaketocutdownanymoretrees.

  20. C • Theinfinitivemay be thecomplement of a verb: • His plan is tokeeptheaffairsecret. Myaim is toteachyouEnglish.

  21. D • Theinfinitivemay be theobjectorpart of theobject of a verb.

  22. D • Itcan followtheverbdirectly: • He wantstopay.

  23. I hope to see her soon. • Tom decided to sell his car. She hopes to winthe lottery. He decided to join the English Club at school.

  24. D • Itcan followverb + object: • He wantsmetopay.

  25. . Peter asked me to take his sister home. Mother advised Tom to thinkcarefully before he made his decision. The teacher did not allow students to shout in class.

  26. D • It can followverb + how,whatetc. • Can youtellmehowtogettothestation? • I don’tknowwhentoanswer his letter.

  27. to-infinitives can be used with question words like HOW , WHERE , WHAT and WHEN. e.g. I asked him how to get to the railway station. We are discussing where to go for our holidays. Please tell me when to take the cake out of the oven.

  28. E • Theinfinitive can expresspurpose.

  29. E I amsavingsomemoneytostudyabroad.

  30. Comes after the main verb • …... He went to buy a car. infinitive Main verb

  31. I went toopen thedoor.

  32. F • Theinfinitive can be usedaftercertainadjectives:

  33. F angry,glad,happy,sorry,glad, lucky,prepared,pleased, determined,ready,surprised, nice,impossible

  34. F • Weweresorrytohearthebadnews. We are sorry to hear of your father’s death.

  35. F • I amgladtomeetyou. • I ampleasedtomeetyou. • I amhappytoseeyouagain. • I amluckyto be here. • I amreadytogo.

  36. K • Theinfinitive can be usedwithtoo/enough It'stooearlytoleavetheparty. Youaretooyoungtogooutlate at night. He'srichenoughtoafford a Porsche. I’mstrongenoughtolivewithoutyou.

  37. as adjective I have a lot of work to do tomorrow.

  38. cost/take+ object can also be used: • Itcostsmillionstorebuildthecastle. • Ittakesyearstorebuildthecastle.

  39. VERB + INFINITIVE • Wanttowouldliketopromiseto • Decidetorefuseto plan toexpectto

  40. VERB + (PRO)NOUN +INFINITIVE • Tellsomeonetowantsomeoneto • Wouldlikesomeonetoallowsomeoneto • expectsomeonetoforcesomeoneto • remindsomeoneto

  41. GERUND

  42. THE GERUND AS SUBJECT

  43. It is easiertoreadFrenchthantospeak it. or • ReadingFrench is easierthanspeaking it.

  44. GERUNDS AFTER PREPOSITIONS

  45. When a verb is placedimmediatelyafter a prepositionthegerundmust be used: What can you do besidestyping? • Touchyourtoeswithoutbendingyourknees. • He is goodatswimming. • I amtooafraidoflosingyou. • I amtiredofarguing. • Afterswimming I feltcold. • Whataboutleaving it hereandcollecting it later.

  46. VERBS FOLLOVED BY GERUNDS

  47. VERB + GERUND enjoyavoidquitmindsuggestdiscuss stop stop + infinitive of purpose

  48. VERB + GERUND OR INFINITIVEWITH NO DIFFERENCE IN MEANING