A Theinfinitivemay be usedalone.
B Theinfinitivemay be thesubject of a sentence.
1 Theinfinitiveor an infinitivephrasecan be thesubject of theverbs:appear,be,seem,requireTheinfinitive can be placedfirst:
1 Toleanout of thewindowis dangerous. Tosavemoneynowseemsimpossible.
2 But it is moreusualtoplacethepronounit first,andmovetheinfinitiveorinfinitivephrasetotheend of thesentence:
2 • Itis dangeroustoleanout of thewindow. • Itseemedimpossibletosavemoney.
2 • Ithere is known as theintroductoryit.Noteitsusewithinterrogatives: • Willit be safetocamphere? • Theitconstruction is necessaryhere.Will+tocampis not posible.
To playthe piano well requires a good sense of music. To go on a trip is very relaxing.
In modern usage, it is more common to begin the sentence with “it”. e.g. It requires a good sense of music to playthe piano well. It is very relaxing to goon a trip. It is very important for students to studyhard.
3 • Usuallyinfinitiveconstruction of thistypeconsist of • it+ be + adjective + infinitive.
3 But sometimes a noun can be usedinstead of an adjective: Itis a crime/a mistaketocutdownanymoretrees.
C • Theinfinitivemay be thecomplement of a verb: • His plan is tokeeptheaffairsecret. Myaim is toteachyouEnglish.
D • Theinfinitivemay be theobjectorpart of theobject of a verb.
D • Itcan followtheverbdirectly: • He wantstopay.
I hope to see her soon. • Tom decided to sell his car. She hopes to winthe lottery. He decided to join the English Club at school.
D • Itcan followverb + object: • He wantsmetopay.
. Peter asked me to take his sister home. Mother advised Tom to thinkcarefully before he made his decision. The teacher did not allow students to shout in class.
D • It can followverb + how,whatetc. • Can youtellmehowtogettothestation? • I don’tknowwhentoanswer his letter.
to-infinitives can be used with question words like HOW , WHERE , WHAT and WHEN. e.g. I asked him how to get to the railway station. We are discussing where to go for our holidays. Please tell me when to take the cake out of the oven.
E • Theinfinitive can expresspurpose.
E I amsavingsomemoneytostudyabroad.
Comes after the main verb • …... He went to buy a car. infinitive Main verb
F • Theinfinitive can be usedaftercertainadjectives:
F angry,glad,happy,sorry,glad, lucky,prepared,pleased, determined,ready,surprised, nice,impossible
F • Weweresorrytohearthebadnews. We are sorry to hear of your father’s death.
F • I amgladtomeetyou. • I ampleasedtomeetyou. • I amhappytoseeyouagain. • I amluckyto be here. • I amreadytogo.
K • Theinfinitive can be usedwithtoo/enough It'stooearlytoleavetheparty. Youaretooyoungtogooutlate at night. He'srichenoughtoafford a Porsche. I’mstrongenoughtolivewithoutyou.
as adjective I have a lot of work to do tomorrow.
cost/take+ object can also be used: • Itcostsmillionstorebuildthecastle. • Ittakesyearstorebuildthecastle.
VERB + INFINITIVE • Wanttowouldliketopromiseto • Decidetorefuseto plan toexpectto
VERB + (PRO)NOUN +INFINITIVE • Tellsomeonetowantsomeoneto • Wouldlikesomeonetoallowsomeoneto • expectsomeonetoforcesomeoneto • remindsomeoneto
It is easiertoreadFrenchthantospeak it. or • ReadingFrench is easierthanspeaking it.
When a verb is placedimmediatelyafter a prepositionthegerundmust be used: What can you do besidestyping? • Touchyourtoeswithoutbendingyourknees. • He is goodatswimming. • I amtooafraidoflosingyou. • I amtiredofarguing. • Afterswimming I feltcold. • Whataboutleaving it hereandcollecting it later.
VERB + GERUND enjoyavoidquitmindsuggestdiscuss stop stop + infinitive of purpose