Infinitives and Gerunds Suyoung Song 0551034 Yoojin Kim 0651003 Jijoung Lee 0651025 Yookyoung Shin 0551036
Which one is which? 1. 2. a. I forgot to shave. - infinitive b. I forgot shaving. - gerunds
Complements Complements Finite complements Non finite complements Infinitives Gerunds to infinitives bare infinitives
Basic forms NON-FINITIVE verb complements 1. Infinitives (to infinitives, bare infinitives) • main verb + to-infinitives • He doesn’t seem to want to see her again. b. main verb + noun/pronoun object + to infinitives She told him to consult with the city attorney. c. main verb + noun/pronoun object + bare infinitives I watched a butterfly lay eggs.
Basic forms NON-FINITIVE verb complements 2. Gerund a. main verb + gerund You continued talking to me, but I stopped listening. b. main verb + noun/pronoun object + gerund I couldn't bear her dating other men. c. main verb + noun, possessive pronoun + gerund She resented having to work full-time when she wanted to be home with her kids.
Basic forms FINITIVE COMPLEMENT 1. Complements with finite forms mark for tense c.f. Non-finite forms carry no grammatical information such a tense. e.g. * to goes, * to went 2. Finite clause complements • often begin with ‘that’ • He hopes that students will take a closer look at the issue.
Basic forms -Structures with infinitive and gerund complements * NP-object is much more frequent than NP-possessive
Basic Meanings Verbs and their complement
Basic Meanings Group 1: Verbs with only finite(that…) complements - Main verbs such as know and realizeindicate mental states and have finite complements that represent thoughts or propositions. - the information in the complement is presented as an idea, a fact, or a proposition. e. g. I realized that nature is filled with a limitless number of wonderful things. *He knew her to love someone else. *He knew her seeing someone else.
Basic Meanings Group 2: Verbs with only to- V non-finite complements - Main verbs such as hope or want indicate that the actions of the complement verb will be in the future (expressing future possibilities). - Main verbs refer to something that has not yet taken place. e. g. He hoped to change her mind. - Complements can be expressed in a finite clause with modal verbs indicating non-factual status. e. g. He hoped that he could change her mind.
Basic Meanings Group 3: Verbs with only V –ing non-finite complements - Main verbs indicate detest and enjoy. - Meaning of gerund complements is that the situations are to be treated as already established. e.g. She detested visiting Frederic's family in northern France. She detested the fact that she visited Frederic’s family in northern France.
Basic Meanings Group 4: Verbs with both to –V and V –ing non-finite complements - Main verbs indicate forget and remember. • Different complements indicate different sequences of action. -Clear meaning differences 1) He forgot to take his medicine, so he is still sick. He forgot that he should take it. V before to V forget before take 2) He forgot taking his medicine, but he did it. He forgot that he had taken his medicine. V after V-ing forget after take
Meaning in Context - One way to approach the distinction between infinitives and gerunds is in terms of the type of information. - Both infinitives and gerunds have verb-like and noun-like properties. 1) derived from verbs (Verb-like aspects) 2) syntactic function associated with noun (Noun-like aspects) -infinitives are more verb-like involve actions and performance of the action - gerunds are more noun-like involve events
Meaning in Context Noun-like events : Gerund - the possibility of using possessive form e. g. She resented his going there without her. - presented as a specific kind of event rather than as the performance of an act e. g. He enjoyed going there alone. - main verbs ‘consider’, ’suggest’ e.g. He considered going to the beach. She suggested going to the museum. - “V after V- ing” is not applied. (suggest after going (X))
Meaning in Context Verb-like actions : Infinitives - performing an action - agency or performer of the act - no sense of a definite action or any markers of definiteness e.g. She told him to go without her. He wanted her to go too. • the properties of indefinite potential performance of an act are at the source of the meanings ‘non-factual’ and ‘possible’ often associated with infinitive complements. • c. f. gerund complements are definite • e.g. I enjoyed playing the piano.
Meaning in Context Deny and refuse - both negative meaning but each complements carry different information, but they don’t carry same type of complements e. g. Peter denied going to the party. Peter refused to go to the party. - Deny : status of proposition can be true or not true Gerund - Refuse : physical act cannot be true or not true (not proposition) can be done or not done Infinitives
to- V V -ing Features more verb-like more noun-like no possessive modifier possessive modifier possible specified agent likely specified agent less likely Meanings act events more performance-like more propositions-like performer assumed performer not assumed less definite more definite possible happens actually happens Meaning in Context Information in infinitives versus gerunds
Meaning in Context “Like” can be used with both infinitives and gerund but the meanings are different. e.g. I don’t like to smoke. - The speaker has to be talking about herself as agent performing the acts indicated in the complement. • e.g. I don’t like smoking • It is the event, not the act. • The speaker herself might not be a performer in the events mentioned.
Activity *Storytime *Match game *Discussion
Storytime • Goal of activity: Students can answer the questions using gerunds and infinitives. • Type of activity: Group work • Approximate time: 15 minutes • Materials: worksheet • Students’ profile: intermediate- mid
Procedure: • 1. Arrange the students in groups of three or four and give each student a worksheet. • 2. Have the students read the summary and discuss the questions, then write answers, using a gerund, an infinitive, or a simple form. Make sure students write answers on only one worksheet, working together. • 3. Go around groups and have students share some of the answers.
Answer the questions based on the summarized below. Use a gerund, an infinitive, or a simple form in your answer. • General Hospital Jason is in a car accident when the car he is riding in (his brother, A.J., is driving) hits a tree. Jason was not wearing seat belt and was thrown from the car. He experiences memory loss as a result of the accident. He can’t remember anyone and gets particularly angry at his family and his girlfriend when they tell him what he was like and how he used to act before the accident. Jason is from a wealthy family and had been a premed student. Because he knows he can’t match his family’s expectations, he leaves home, rents a room, and takes a blue-collar job. • What is Jason angry about? • What did Jason decide to do? • What can’t Jason remember? • What did Jason stop doing?
Match Game • Goal of Activity: Students can practice making sentences with gerunds or infinitives by matching cards. • Type of Activity: Group work • Approximate time: 25 minutes • Materials: matching cards • Students’ profile: intermediate-low
Procedure: • 1. Divide the class into groups of four. Distribute 6 or 8 cards to each group (The number of given cards should be even number.) • 2. Each group makes as many matches as possible. The matches must be grammatically correct and logical. Ex) speaking ill of someone / it is romantic is unusual / to walk in the snow • 3. When a group can make no more matches, it goes to other groups to look for a trade. So they can keep making matches by trading. *** Students cannot just take a card from a group; they must trade. • 4. When one group makes all its matches, the game stops. One group member reads out the matches. The other groups vote to accept or reject each match. • 5. If the matches are all accepted, the team wins. If some matches are rejected, the game continues until another group makes all its matches.
Discussion Activity • Goal of Activity: Students can discuss the topic using gerunds and infinitives • Type of Activity: Group work • Materials: Article from Internet, newspaper or magazine • Time: 30minutes • Students’ profile: Intermediate-high and adults
Procedure: 1. Divide the class into groups of three or four. • 2. Distribute the Internet article “Tips For Finding Mr. Right”to students and read over the article. • 3. Have the students find the sentences with gerunds or infinitives from the article and then share them. Ex) “The most important thing is to be Ms. Right yourself.” • 4. The teacher or students can add some more verbs that can be used to talk about this topic. • ***The teacher adds the following verbs: want, hate, enjoy, like, love, choose, hope, avoid, prefer etc. • 5. Have the students in groups discuss their Mr. Right using gerunds and infinitives. Ex) I want to meet a man that is very intelligent, romantic, sincere and very good looking… I enjoy watching movies, so I would want to share interests and similarities with each other.. 6. Let some of them present their Mr. /Ms. Right in front of class.
RELATIONSHIPS 10 Tips for Finding Mr. Right New Life Ministries • 1. Get a life. The most important thing is to be Ms. Right yourself.Finding the right man is not going to change you into a better person than you already are. If you are lazy and self-centered, finding a generous hard working fellow is not going to transform you. If you are boring and a one-dimensional person, finding an intellectually challenging man is not going to change who you are. Learn how to be interesting, kind, caring, and unselfish. Learn to be happy with yourself, first. You will only be happy in your new relationship if you are happy inside first. • 2. Evaluate your physical attractiveness. Not everyone is Ms. America. Nobody looks like the models in magazines. Find out what your best feature is and accentuate it. Wear clothes that flatter your figure. Men want to be proud of their wife’s appearance, not embarrassed. You don’t need to spend a fortune, simply plan wisely with a few sharp pieces. Small changes can make a world of difference in your looks as well as your outlook. • 3. Be open to matchmaker services and the Internet. Is it safe to look there for someone? It depends. Personal ads have been around for years, and the Internet Web pages are just an extension of them. Now it is commonplace for almost anyone to take advantage of Web pages for matchmaking. Using common sense, and seeking reputable services with good references are the basics when going online. • 4. Talk to your family and friends about the kind of man you want. Who better knows you and the things you need? Ask them for tips on the type of guy they think you need, and don’t be insulted when they tell you the truth. They probably know you better than you know yourself. Their feedback could be invaluable. • Excerpted from Avoiding Mr. Wrong by Steve Arterburn and Meg Rinck. Used by permission of New Life Ministries. New Life Ministries has a variety of resources on men, women, and relationships. Call 1-800-NEW-LIFE or visit www.newlife.com. • <https://www.cbn.com/family/DatingSingles/newlife_MrRight.aspx>
Types of Verbs • Tree types of verbs that take infinitives and gerunds as complements: • -Commitment verbs • -Aspectual verbs • -Sensory perception verbs
Commitment Verbs • Commitment : persuade someone to do something • Take infinitive & involve commitment for future action • the act of commitment comes before the act to be performed : V before to-V • Self-directed (plan) :no direct object Other-directed (order): direct object
Commitment Verbs -Other-directed: variation in the strength command, order>persuade, convince>permit Ex) RAIN commanded his staff to repair the stage. RAIN convinced his staff to repair the stage. -arrange, long, pray, and yarn :for NP to V & for NP Ex) RAIN longed for his fans to come to his concert. RAIN longed for the success of his showcase. -Self-directed: variation in the strength (Likelihood of second action) decide, determine>aim, expect>plan, prepare> hope, seek
Aspectual Verbs • describe situations focusing on beginning, continuing, and ending: complements should be interpreted with main verbs Ex) RAIN started drinking after finishing his concert. RAIN continued drinking after midnight. RAIN stopped drinking at dawn. - gerund: indicate an event that is ongoing & activities and process that have duration - infinitives: indicate a point of time (not duration) Ex) The audience started to cheer when RAIN appeared in the stage. The accompaniment ceased to be played unexpectedly when RAIN started to sing.
Aspectual Verbs - point in time (infinitive) vs. ongoing event (gerund) Ex) RAIN begins to sing his hit song at the beginning of the concert. RAIN begins singing his hit songs in the first half of the concert. - the complement verbs indicate a state (be, understand, believe) : infinitive Ex) RAIN continued to stay on the stage. - Better sound: gerund is often avoided when the aspectual verb is in the progressive. Ex) The fans are continuing to shout with joy. The fans are continuing shouting with joy.
Aspectual verbs and complements Aspectual verbs begin, commence, finish, remain, burst out, complete, give up, resume, carry on, continue, go on, start, cease, discontinue, keep, stay, come out, end up, quit, stop With complements to-V V-ing point in time period of time single act ongoing event (s) state activity, process
Sensory perception verbs • take both gerund and bare infinitives. • the difference between the uses of the gerund and the infinitive complements: in respect to time • ongoing, no time limitation, incomplete, series of acts: gerunds • limited in time, completed, single act: bare infinitives Ex) Lots of people could see RAIN singing. Lots of people could see RAIN sing.
Sensory perception verbs and complements Sensory perception verbs feel, look at, overhear, smell, hear, notice, see, spot, listen to, observe, sense, watch With complements bare infinitive (v) Gerund (V-ing) limited in time unlimited in time completed incomplete single act series of acts
Linguistic Distance • the to+ infinitive puts more distance between the two verbs: more conceptual distance between the two • a bare infinitive: there is no conceptual distance, the two events are happening simultaneously. Ex) Rain told me to come to his concert. Rain saw me dance to his music in the concert.
Activity 1. The following are prohibited • Goal of Activity :students can realize the use of gerunds in realia • Materials : realia (worksheet #1) • Types of Activity: Groups • Students’ profile : intermediate mid / elementary, middle school students • Time : 30 minutes
Procedure : 1) In class, with students in small groups, give them the task of creating a set of rules for the classroom that can be displayed on a sign. Some of the groups have to create signs the begin with The following are encouraged. The other groups have to create signs that begin with The following are prohibited.Later, the different types of signs can be compared (and perhaps displayed).
2)Out of class, students have to write down examples of gerunds form signs and notices. Good locations are parks, public facilities, buses, subways, police stations, and schools. As a spoken exercise in class, they have to present their discoveries and try to explain why people aren’t allowed to do those things in those places. As a written exercise, they can use their examples in a composition on “The following are prohibited”.
3) Another natural context for gerunds is in questionnaires used for surveys. You can create a scale of never-sometimes-often-always-beside a series of descriptions. Some examples are listed below from a health questionnaire that had the general heading : How frequently do you experience the following? headaches, tingling in fingers and hands, feeling exhausted, feeling short of breath, reacting with annoyance to others, having bad dreams, crying easily, trembling or shocking, having your mind go blank.