ENGLISH PROJECT ENGLISH PROJECT GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
ENGLISH PROJECT GERUNDS
FormSimple, Active Dancing is her favorite habit. I prefer eating ice-cream. FormSimple, Passive Mary prefers being taught by a stern teacher. The actress stayed at her hotel to avoid being seen by her fans.
FormPerfect, Active I regret having made the remark abort her hairdo. I regret having seen the film. FormPerfect, Passive The film was banned after having been seen by thousands of people. I regret having been transferred to another class this year.
The gerund can be used: 1. As the subject of a verb 2. As the object of a verb 3. As the object of a preposition 4. After a possessive or the possessive form of nouns 5. After certain verbs 6. Special combination 7. Formed by adding “not” before it.
As the subject of a verb When a gerund is used as thesubject of a verb, it is placed at thebeginning of a sentence. Readingromantic novels is my favourite pastime. Smokingis hazardous to health. Climbingmountains can be dangerous if we are not careful. A baby’scryingwoke me up last. Walkingfrom here to the local supermarket takes only five minutes.
Notes: The gerund is also used in the following constructions: 1) It is no use/It is no good e.g It is no usetryingto make her change her mind. It is no goodinterferingwith other people’s business. 2) There is no e.g There is nojokingabout such matters. There is nodenyingthe fact that the Clean Hong Kong Campaign is a success.
3) It’s worth / It’s not worth E.g. Is the film worthseeing ? It is not worthgoingto see that film. 4) It’s a waste of money / time E.g. It’s a waste of time writingthe report. It’s a waste of money buying the doll.
5 ) Have difficulty E.g. Mary has difficultydoingher Maths homework . I’m sorry I’m late. I had difficultyfindingthe place. 6 ) Go-ing E.g. Did you go shopping yesterday ? How often do you go swimmingin the summer ?
As the object of a verb When a gerund is used as the object of a verb in a sentence, it is placed after the verb. She tried to avoid getting involved in their quarrels. He enjoys acting. Mary disliked listeningto pop music. They hate eating fatty foods. We all enjoy reading a good book.
Note: The following words are followed by gerunds, not infinitives: Acknowledge , admit , anticipate , appreciate , avoid , celebrate , defer , delay , deny , detest , dislike , like , consider , doubt , enjoy , escape , excuse , fancy , finish , forgive , remember ,imagine , include , keep , mention , mind , miss , propose , pardon , postpone , practice , prevent , recall , recollect , report , resent , resist , risk , save , stand , suggest , tolerate , understand , be worth , be busy
As a object of a preposition Agerundcan also be used as the object of a preposition.In this case, thegerund follows the preposition. My brother is thinking ofchanginghis job. She is fed up withteachingEnglish. I look forward toseeingyou in the summer. I was interested inpainting. He persisted incarryingout the plan.
Notes1: There are two exceptions---- exceptandbut. e.g There was nothing left for us to doexceptcomplain to the Consumer Council. He did nothingbut(to)watchtelevision yesterday. Notes2: In the following phrases,tois a preposition. used to, averse to, closed to, object to, devoted to, when it comes to, opposed to, susceptible to, look forward to, accustomed to, confessed to, key to
After a possessive adjective or the possessive form of nouns Possessive adjective : my, our, your, his, her, its, their Possessive form of nouns :John’s my brother’s Example : Would you mindmyusing your book? Would you mindJoan’susing your dictionary?
After certain verbs Avoid enjoy miss recall appreciate finish oppose mind resist dislike prevent waste Examples : 1. I dislike having lunch with John. 2. Would you mind answering my question ? 3. When will you finish talking ?
7. Formed by adding “not” before it. Example: I apologize fornot being able to see you off at the airport tomorrow. He resented nothaving been invited to the party.
English Project Infinitives
Infinitive:--bare - inf.-- • (1) After auxiliary verb • "do , does , did , shall , should, will , would , can , could , may , might , must" • Alice could not find the key. • I will be glad to help you. • (2)After verbs of perception • "see , notice , observe , watch ,hear , feel , smell" • I saw her get on the bus. • He heard her say that. • (3)After "make" & "let’’ • His joke made us laugh. • She did not let her sister go to the party.
bare - inf. • (4)After "had better" "would rather' "cannot but" "can do nothing but" • You ‘d better think about it. • I ‘d rather wait here a little longer. • Compare “ I ‘d rather you waited here a little longer. • I cannot but laugh whenever I think of his humourous remark. • As it was raining hard , I could do nothingbutstay at home • (5)After "need" "dare" and "except" • He needn’t do it himself. • Need he do it himself? • She dared notlie to her parents. • Dared she lie to her parents?
to - inf. (1)As a subject E.g To succeed at my fob is all I want at the moment. To argue with him is a waste of time. (2) To express an intention E.g. I go to school to study. She goes running everyday to lose weight. (3) In order to join a question & answer in single sentence. Q:Why did he move to Las Vegas? A1:He wanted to be closer to the casino. A2:He moved to Las Vegas in order to be closer to the casinos.
to - inf. • (4) So as ( not) to join two sentences that relateto the same idea in one sentence. • Eg. She studied very hard for the test. She wanted to be save to pass. • She studied very hard so as to be save to pass the test.
to - inf. • (5) Verb + inf. • A few of the more common verbs normally followed by an infinitive include : • afford agree appear attempt decide determine • expect hope like love need offer • pretend seem threaten refuse • We can’t afford to go away this summer. • The room appears to have been searched. • The prisoners attempted to escape but failed.
to - inf. • (6) Verb + object +inf. • A few of the more common verbs normally followed by an object + an infinitive include: • advise allow ask encourage help invite • know order teach tempt tell warn • The doctor advised me totake a complete break. • Please allow me tocarry that bag for you. • We must appoint a time tomeet again.
to - inf. • (7) Adjective followed by infinitive • dangerous important rude good • Eg. It s dangerous towalk home alone. • To walk home along is dangerous. • (8) “ Too” and ‘not enough’ • Eg, He is too tired to work, he should take some rest. • He is not tall enoughto be a policeman.
Comparison between GERUNDS and INFINITIVE • (1) Some verbs followed by GERUNDS or INFINITIVES without there being any change in meaning . • Such verbs include ‘start , begin ,cease, continue and can’t bear’. • (2) Those which can be followed by either without any difference in meaning. • Eg. They continued to - work after lunch. • - working
Comparison between GERUNDS and INFINITIVE • STOP 。 When the teacher came, the • children stopped talking at once. • The driver stopped his cars to ask • where the farm was. • REMEMBER。I can’t find my key. I remember • putting it inmy coat , pocket ,in • this morning. • I hope you will rememberto post • my letter on your way to school.
Comparison between GERUNDS and INFINITIVE • FORGET。He has forgottenasking me the same • question yesterday. • He has asked me to lend him my • dictionary because he has forgotten to • bring it again. mountain. • TRY。After failing twice, they triedclimbing • from the other side of the maintain. • This year they will tryto climb a high mountain.
Comparison between GERUNDS and INFINITIVE • REGRET。 I regrettelling her the secret. Now, • everybody knows that I’ m going to • resign. • I regretto tell you that your • application has not been successful. • I ‘ll let you know when there is • another vacancy. • GO ON。They went ontalking until late into • the night. • They went onto talk about other • things.
Comparison between GERUNDS and INFINITIVE • Eg. “Allow , advise , acknowledge , encourage , permit “,can be followed by an Object + infinitive. • She advised us to start early. • Compare: sheadvisedstarting early. • Eg. “deserve , need , want , and require “ • Can be followed by either an active gerund or a passive infinitive without change of meaning. • This needs- painting • - to be painted.
PRESENTED BY David Au Kelvin Wong Skye Lam Linda Ng Chris Fung
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