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Antebellum South

Antebellum South

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Antebellum South

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  1. Antebellum South

  2. Early Emancipation in the North

  3. Missouri Compromise, 1820

  4. MO Compromise • Prevented slavery to extend to the northern part of the LA Purchase, above 36,30 Parallel except MO. • Slavery allowed in AK • Closer to Civil War, MO Compromise will be changed

  5. Antebellum Southern Society

  6. Characteristics of the Antebellum South • Primarily agrarian. • Economic power shifted from the “upper South” to the “lower South.” • “Cotton Is King!” * 1860 5 mil. bales a yr. (57% of total US exports). • Very slow development of industrialization. • Poorly established financial system. • Inadequate transportation system.- does not benefit from American System Improvements

  7. Domestic Slave Trade • After 1808 illegalization of Atlantic slave trade, interstate trade became increasingly profitable • Slaves brought overland; mostly chained and on foot • Slaves a “product” sold by business firms, lottery, and by slave-trading firms • Market Prices • Prices of slaves responded to market factors • As demand increased, so did the price of slaves • After financial turmoil, price and demand slumped

  8. Domestic Slave Trade 1808-1865

  9. Alexandria, VA Slave Pen

  10. The illegal slave trade to the United States, 1808-1860

  11. Additional Southern Crops • Tobacco- Virginia, North Carolina • Sugar – Louisiana, south Texas • Rice – South Carolina, south Georgia, Arkansas, Louisiana • Indigo – South Carolina • Hemp - Kentucky

  12. Cotton Gin

  13. Southern Society (1850) “Slavocracy”[plantation owners] 6,000,000 Middle Classes[white yeoman farmers] Overseers, second sons of plantation owners, small rural Farmers, few slaves Poor White Farmers Black Freemen 250,000 Black Slaves3,200,000 Total US Population  23,000,000[9,250,000 in the South = 40%]- The South is a Minority Group

  14. Slavery on the Plantation • On the Plantation • Work of slaves primarily agricultural • In 1860, ¾ of white people in South did not own slaves • Slaves concentrated in hands of relatively few • Bulk of staple crops produced on large plantations • Owners dominated political and economic thinking

  15. Slave-Owning Population (1850)

  16. Slave-Owning Families (1850)

  17. Black Freedmen and slave ownership • Not common • Kingsley Plantation, Jacksonville, FL • New Orleans, LA

  18. A Georgia Plantation

  19. Plantations • Plantation Owner • Leader in society • Business leader • Supervised overseer or entire plantation • Plantation Mistress • Oversaw plantation household, chores and servants • Education of children, Republican Motherhood • Cult of Domesticity

  20. Cult of Domesticity • Evidenced in Popular Culture • Catharine Beecher • "Woman's greatest mission is to train immature, weak and ignorant creatures, to obey the laws of God, first in the family, then in the school, then in the neighborhood, then in the nation, then in the world." • Godey’s Lady’s Book, popularized women's issues • The Cult of Domesticity developed as family lost its function as economic unit. (family moved from farms to cities) • 4 characteristics of ideal womanhood : piety, purity, domesticity, and submissiveness • Housework was an uplifting task • "There is more to be learned about pouring out tea and coffee than most young ladies are willing to believe." • Women were expected to uphold the values of stability, morality, and democracy by making the home a special place.

  21. Antebellum Southern Economy

  22. Graniteville Textile Co. Founded in 1845, it was the South’s first attempt at industrialization in Richmond, VA

  23. Southern Agriculture

  24. Cotton Pickingon a Mississippi Plantation

  25. Using the Cotton Gin

  26. Changes in Cotton Production 1820 1860

  27. Value of Cotton Exports As % of All US Exports

  28. “Hauling the Whole Week’s Pickings”William Henry Brown, 1842

  29. Workingin a Sugar-Boiling House, 1823

  30. The Impending Crisis • Hinton R. Helper, a southerner • 1857 book • Thesis of Book: large plantation owners ability to grow large amounts of crops prevent small farmers from being able to compete. • Calls for an end to slavery and the removal of African-Americans from the USA • Popular in the North, unpopular in the South

  31. The South's "Peculiar Institution"

  32. Kenneth Stampp’s book (1956) The Peculiar Institution • argued that investments in slaves were profitable, • rejected the idea that economic forces would have led to the end of slavery • said that African-Americans actively resisted slavery, not just through armed uprisings but also through work slowdowns, the breaking of tools, theft from masters, etc… • Stampp said that the Civil War was in part a moral debate over slavery

  33. Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.

  34. Slavery • Work regimen for cotton demanding • Gang-labor system used • Believed that one slave needed for every 3 acres of cotton • Work hours longest during harvest time • Gender Division of Labor • Certain jobs indentified by sex • Slave women integral to plantation economy • Ranked each other’s status according to creative ability • Also worked in fields alongside men

  35. A Slave Family

  36. Slavery 1820

  37. Slavery 1860

  38. The Slave Diet • Each slave household received ration of meal and salt pork • Sometimes allowed to maintain own gardens • Some even allowed to market their produce

  39. Slave Wedding

  40. Slave Hiring- like Venture Smith from the video • Owners put slaves out for hire in period between harvest and new planting • Some urban slaves allowed to self-hire; although illegal under southern law • Self-hire gave dual sense of freedom and its limits • Slaves could not legally contract for their services; contract was between master and hiring employer

  41. US Laws Regarding Slavery • U. S. Constitution: * 3/5s compromise [I.2] * fugitive slave clause [IV.2] • 1793 Fugitive Slave Act. • 1850  stronger Fugitive Slave Act.

  42. Slavery Timeline • 1780s: 1st antislavery society created in Phila. • By 1804: slavery eliminated from last northern state. • 1807: the legal termination of the slave trade, enforced by the Royal Navy. • 1820s: newly indep. Republics of Central & So. America declared their slaves free. • 1833: slavery abolished throughout the British Empire. • 1844: slavery abolished in the Fr. colonies. • 1861: the serfs of Russia were emancipated.

  43. Slavery Was Less Efficient in the U. S. than Elsewhere • High cost of keeping slaves fromescaping. • GOAL raise the “exit cost.” Slave patrols. Southern Black Codes.

  44. SLAVE CODES AND LAWS • Slave Revolts would lead plantation owners to develop a series of slave laws/codes which restricted the movement of the slaves. • Slaves were not taught to read or write • Restricted to the plantation • Slaves could not congregate after dark • Slaves could not possess any type of firearm • Slave owners wanted to keep their slaves ignorant of the outside world because learning about life beyond the plantation could lead to more slave revolts and wanting to escape.

  45. Slave Code Examples

  46. SLAVE CODES OR LAWS Slave Codes of the State of Georgia, 1848 SEC. I. CAPITAL OFFENSES. 1. Capital crimes when punished with death. The following shall be considered as capital offences, when committed by a slave or free person of color: insurrection, or an attempt to excite it; committing a rape, or attempting it on a free white female; murder of a free white person, or murder of a slave or free person of color, or poisoning of a human being; every and each of these offences shall, on conviction, be punished with death.

  47. SLAVE LAWS Georgia Slave Code, 1848 2. Punishment of free persons of color for encouraging slaves. If any free person of color commits the offence of encouraging or enticing away any slave or slaves, for the purpose of, and with the intention to aid and assist such slave or slaves leaving the service of his or their owner or owners, or in going to another state, such person so offending shall, for each and every such offence, on conviction, be confined in the penitentiary at hard labor for one year.

  48. SLAVE LAWS Georgia Slave Code, 1848 3. Punishment for teaching slaves or free persons of color to read. If any slave, Negro, or free person of color, or any white person, shall teach any other slave, Negro, or free person of color, to read or write either written or printed characters, the said free person of color or slave shall be punished by fine and whipping, or fine or whipping, at the discretion of the court.

  49. Southern Population