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The Antebellum South

The Antebellum South

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The Antebellum South

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  1. The Antebellum South Ch. 16 EU: In what ways and to what extent was industrial development from 1800 to 1860 a factor in the relationship between the northern and the southern states?

  2. Early Emancipation in the North

  3. Missouri Compromise, 1820

  4. Antebellum Southern Economy

  5. Graniteville Textile Co. Founded in 1845, it was the South’s first attempt at industrialization in Richmond, VA

  6. Slaves Picking Cottonon a Mississippi Plantation

  7. Slaves Using the Cotton Gin

  8. Southern Agriculture

  9. Slaves Workingin a Sugar-Boiling House, 1823

  10. Changes in Cotton Production 1820 1860

  11. Value of Cotton Exports As % of All US Exports

  12. “Hauling the Whole Week’s Pickings”William Henry Brown, 1842

  13. Antebellum Southern Society

  14. Characteristics of the Antebellum South • Primarily agrarian. • Economic power shifted from the “upper South” to the “lower South.” • “Cotton Is King!” * 1860 5 mil. bales a yr. (57% of total US exports). • Very slow development of industrialization. • Rudimentary financial system. • Inadequate transportation system.

  15. Southern Society (1850) “Slavocracy”[plantation owners] 6,000,000 The “Plain Folk”[white yeoman farmers] Black Freemen 250,000 Black Slaves3,200,000 Total US Population  23,000,000[9,250,000 in the South = 40%]

  16. Southern Population

  17. Slave-Owning Population (1850)

  18. Slave-Owning Families (1850)

  19. The South's "Peculiar Institution"

  20. Slave Auction Notice, 1823

  21. Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856

  22. Slave Accoutrements Slave MasterBrands Slave muzzle

  23. Anti-Slave Pamphlet

  24. Slave Accoutrements Slave leg irons Slave tag, SC Slave shoes

  25. Antebellum Southern Plantation Life

  26. Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.

  27. Tara – Plantation Reality or Myth? Hollywood’s Version?

  28. Scarlet and Mammie(Hollywood Again!)

  29. A Real Mammie & Her Charge

  30. The Southern “Belle”

  31. A Slave Family

  32. The Ledger of John White • Matilda Selby, 9, $400.00 sold to Mr. Covington, St. Louis, $425.00 • Brooks Selby, 19, $750.00 Left at Home – Crazy • Fred McAfee, 22, $800.00 Sold to Pepidal,Donaldsonville, $1200.00 • Howard Barnett, 25, $750.00 Ranaway. Sold out of jail, $540.00 • Harriett Barnett, 17, $550.00 Sold to Davenport and Jones, Lafourche, $900.00

  33. US Laws Regarding Slavery • U. S. Constitution: * 3/5s compromise [I.2] * fugitive slave clause [IV.2] • 1793 Fugitive Slave Act. • 1850  stronger Fugitive Slave Act.

  34. Southern Slavery--> An Aberration? • 1780s: 1st antislavery society created in Phila. • By 1804: slavery eliminated from last northern state. • 1807: the legal termination of the slave trade, enforced by the Royal Navy. • 1820s: newly indep. Republics of Central & So. America declared their slaves free. • 1833: slavery abolished throughout the British Empire. • 1844: slavery abolished in the Fr. colonies. • 1861: the serfs of Russia were emancipated.

  35. Slavery Was Less Efficient in the U. S. than Elsewhere • High cost of keeping slaves fromescaping. • GOAL raise the “exit cost.” Slave patrols. Southern Black Codes. Cut off a toe or a foot.

  36. Slave Resistance & Uprisings

  37. Slave Resistance • “SAMBO” pattern of behavior used as a charade in front of whites [the innocent, laughing black man caricature – bulging eyes, thick lips, big smile, etc.].

  38. Slave Resistance • Refusal to work hard. • Isolated acts of sabotage. • Escape via the Underground Railroad.

  39. Runaway Slave Ads

  40. Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route.

  41. Abolitionists of the North

  42. Theodore Weld: Slavery As It Is Formed basis of ethical argument against slavery Argued slavery destroyed & degraded the image of God in Man Converted Tappan Bros. & J. Birney William Lloyd Garrison: Boston abolitionist Alienated middle-class whites by belief in disunion Founded American Anti-Slavery society **His efforts helped w/adoption of 13th Amendment The Liberator (1831) The South & Slavery - Personalities

  43. David Walker: Wrote The Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, which advocated slave rebellions & violence to achieve freedom Sojourner Truth: Ex-slave from NY/For abolition & women’s rights Illiterate Lincoln invited her to White House for advice Isabella Baumfree Sojourn is “visitor or traveler” The South & Slavery - Personalities

  44. Frederick Douglass: Escaped slave living in MASS Published North Star (newspaper) Dressed as a sailor to escape After autobiography published, he went to Eng. Took 8 yrs. To get $700 to buy freedom After 44 yrs. of marriage, his 1st wife died & he married his white secretary After war ambassador to Haiti Nat Turner: Slave preacher (VA) Resulted in death of 50+ whites (mainly women & children); axes Inspired by vision from God (eclipse) Valued at $375 Revolt halted in 48 hrs. 300 innocent blacks killed by white mobs The South & Slavery - Personalities The capture of Nat Turner

  45. John Quincy Adams: 6th Prez; House of Rep. (MASS) Presented petitions against slavery Location of desk in the House  only spot one can hear clearly what is being whispered 15 yds. away *gag resolutions (1836): Attempt to silence him Elijah Lovejoy: Newspaper ed. in ILL Killed by mob trying to protect presses Became a martyr Tappan Brothers: (NYC) Wealthy importers & retail merchants Gave money & leadership to reform societies The South & Slavery - Personalities Arthur Tappan helped fund the Underground Railroad

  46. Methodist & Baptist churches supported slavery; Unitarian did not; Catholic & Episcopalian remained neutral Pro-slavery arguments Violation of 1st Amendment - 1835 U.S. Post Office orders destruction of anti-slavery mail Northern economic dependence on South The South & Slavery – General Topics

  47. Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South Gabriel Prosser1800 1822

  48. Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South: Nat Turner, 1831

  49. The Culture of Slavery • Black Christianity [Baptists or Methodists]: * more emotional worship services. * negro spirituals. • “Pidgin” or Gullah languages. • Nuclear family with extended kin links,where possible. • Importance of music in their lives. [esp. spirituals].

  50. Southern Pro-SlaveryPropaganda