Antebellum South AP US History
Free Soil Party Free Soil! Free Speech! Free Labor! Free Men! • “Barnburners” – discontented northern Democrats. • Anti-slave members of the Liberty and Whig Parties. • Opposition to the extension of slavery in the newterritories!
GOLD! At Sutter’s Mill, 1848 John A. Sutter
California Gold Rush, 1849 49er’s
Two Views of San Francisco, Early 1850s • By 1860, almost 300,000people had traveled theOregon & CaliforniaTrails to the Pacificcoast.
Southern Society-Circa 1850 “Slavocracy”[plantation owners] 6,000,000 The“Plain Folk”[white yeoman farmers] Freemen 250,000 Slaves3,200,000 Total US Population 23,000,000[9,250,000 in the South = 40%]
Reliance on Cotton-changes on production 1820 1860
Slavery in the South-Unusual? • 1780s: 1st antislavery society created in Philadelphia. • By 1804: slavery eliminated from last northern state. • 1807: the legal termination of the slave trade, enforced by the Royal Navy. • 1820s: many newly independent Republics of Central & So. America declared their slaves free. • 1833: slavery abolished throughout the British Empire. • 1844: slavery abolished in the Fr. colonies. • 1861: the serfs of Russia were emancipated
Laws on Slavery • U. S. Constitution:* 3/5s compromise [I.2] * fugitive slave clause [IV.2] • 1793 Fugitive Slave Act. • 1850 stronger Fugitive Slave Act.
Presidential Election 1852 Franklin Pierce Democrat General Winfield Scott Whig John Parker Hale Free-Soil Party
Expansionist Young America in the 1850s America’s Attempted Raids into Latin America
Harriet Beecher Stowe 1811-1896 • Author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852 • Sold 300,000 its first year • 1 million copies in a decade • Lincoln -“So this is the lady who started this great war”
Bleeding Kansas Border “Ruffians”(pro-slavery Missourians)
Another Fight in Congress-”The Crime Against Congress Sen. Charles Sumner(R-MA) Congr. Preston Brooks(D-SC)
Birth of Republican Party • Northern Whigs • Northern Democrats. • Free-Soilers. • Know-Nothings. • Other miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Dred Scott Decision • Dred Scott v Sanford, 1857
Lincoln-Douglas Debates • Illinois Senate race 1858 • A House divided against itself, cannot stand. • Popular Sovereignty
The Final Nail Election of 1860
The Candidates Abraham Lincoln Republican John Bell Constitutional Union Stephen Douglass Northern Democrat Stephen C. Breckenridge Southern Democrat
The Republican Platform • Non-extension of slavery [for the Free-Soilers.] • Protective tariff [for the No. Industrialists]. • No abridgment of rights for immigrants [a disappointment for the “Know-Nothings”]. • Government aid to build a Pacific RR [for the Northwest]. • Internal improvements [for the West] at federal expense. • Free homesteads for the public domain [for farmers]. • Why would southerners oppose this platform?
A nation coming Apart? Discuss the cartoon. Who is presented and what is it symbolizing?
One Last Attempt to Preserve the Union Crittenden Compromise: Senator John J. Crittenden(Know-Nothing-KY) Corwin Compromise Senator Thomas Corwin (Ohio)