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Antebellum South

Antebellum South

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Antebellum South

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  1. Antebellum South

  2. Antebellum South • Introduction • Southern Society • Economics of Slavery • Generations of Slavery • Charter Generation • Plantation Generation • Revolution Generation • Migration Generation • Slave Life • Market • Resistance • Justification • Emancipation Generation • Conclusion

  3. Introduction • With growth of technology including farming equipment and the Cotton Gin, the dependence of slavery grows for the South and so do the hardships.

  4. Antebellum South Introduction Southern Society Economics of Slavery Generations of Slavery • Charter Generation • Plantation Generation • Revolution Generation • Migration Generation • Slave Life • Market • Resistance • Justification • Emancipation Generation Conclusion

  5. Southern Society • Plantation Owners • 1% of pop: owned 20+ slaves • Small Farmers • 30-45% of pop: 0-5 slaves • Landless Whites • 20-25% of pop • Slaves • 35% of pop

  6. Antebellum South • Introduction • Southern Society • Economics of Slavery • Generations of Slavery • Charter Generation • Plantation Generation • Revolution Generation • Migration Generation • Slave Life • Market • Resistance • Justification • Emancipation Generation • Conclusion

  7. Bellwork • Is it possible to separate American History from the history of slavery, or are they inseparable?

  8. Expansion of Slavery • 1790 – Highest density of slaves along SE coast

  9. Expansion of Slavery • Eli Whitney’s cotton gin led to expansion of cotton plantations • Cotton was shipped to Br. And U.S. textile mills • Demand for slave labor increased dramatically

  10. Expansion of Slavery • Eli Whitney’s cotton gin led to expansion of cotton plantations • Cotton was shipped to Br. And U.S. textile mills • Demand for slave labor increased dramatically

  11. Expansion of Slavery • Eli Whitney’s cotton gin led to expansion of cotton plantations • Cotton was shipped to Br. And U.S. textile mills • Demand for slave labor increased dramatically • Value of Cotton Exports as a percentage of all U.S. exports

  12. Expansion of Slavery • 1790 – Highest density of slaves along SE coast • 1860 – Slavery spread over entire South • Small-scale cotton farming did not require slave labor • large operations involved many slaves

  13. Expansion of Slavery • During this same time cotton production expanded significantly

  14. Slavery increased dramatically • 1790 – 697,897 slaves in the United States • 1860 – 3,957,760 slaves in the United States

  15. Objective • Identify the defining characteristics and experiences of slaves during the five generations of captivity: • Charter Gen. • Plantation Gen. • Revolution Gen. • Migration Gen. • Emancipation Gen.

  16. Antebellum South • Introduction • Southern Society • Economics of Slavery • Generations of Slavery • Charter Generation • Plantation Generation • Revolution Generation • Migration Generation • Slave Life • Market • Resistance • Justification • Emancipation Generation • Conclusion

  17. Antebellum South Introduction Southern Society Economics of Slavery Generations of Slavery • Charter Generation • Plantation Generation • Revolution Generation • Migration Generation • Slave Life • Market • Resistance • Justification • Emancipation Generation Conclusion

  18. Generation of Captivity • Charter Generation • Mostly Men • Conformed to society • Manumission was common • Adopted conquerors language, culture, religion

  19. Antebellum South Introduction Southern Society Economics of Slavery Generations of Slavery • Charter Generation • Plantation Generation • Revolution Generation • Migration Generation • Slave Life • Market • Resistance • Justification • Emancipation Generation Conclusion

  20. Generation of Captivity • Charter Generation • Plantation Generation • Harsh labor • Rejected conquerors culture, language, religion • Slave code • Permanent

  21. Antebellum South Introduction Southern Society Economics of Slavery Generations of Slavery • Charter Generation • Plantation Generation • Revolution Generation • Migration Generation • Slave Life • Market • Resistance • Justification • Emancipation Generation Conclusion

  22. Generation of Captivity • Charter Generation • Plantation Generation • Revolution Generation • Freedom for some (Lord Dunmore's Proc., Emancipation in North) • Slavery as permanent condition for others • Loyalists vs Patriot • Gr. Britain abolishes slavery in 1833

  23. Antebellum South Introduction Southern Society Economics of Slavery Generations of Slavery • Charter Generation • Plantation Generation • Revolution Generation • Migration Generation • Slave Life • Market • Resistance • Justification • Emancipation Generation Conclusion

  24. Early 1700s – Men outnumbered women, many were born in Africa • Mid 1800s – Sex ratio became more even, most slaves born in the U.S.

  25. Migration Generation - Slave Life • Majority • Large plantations (at least 10 slaves) • Gang system • Sunrise to sunset • Quota System – 200 lbs. of cotton • Chores at night • Worked 6 day week • Paid for Sunday

  26. Migration Generation - Slave Life

  27. Antebellum South Introduction Southern Society Economics of Slavery Generations of Slavery • Charter Generation • Plantation Generation • Revolution Generation • Migration Generation • Slave Life • Market • Resistance • Justification • Emancipation Generation Conclusion

  28. Migration Generation – Slave Auction

  29. Migration Generation - Slave Auction • Planters from upper south profited by selling slaves to deep south and southwest

  30. Antebellum South Introduction Southern Society Economics of Slavery Generations of Slavery • Charter Generation • Plantation Generation • Revolution Generation • Migration Generation • Slave Life • Market • Resistance • Justification • Emancipation Generation Conclusion

  31. Migration Generation - Resistance • Subtle Resistance: Stealing food, faking illness, working slowly

  32. Migration Generation - Resistance • Subtle Resistance: Stealing food, faking illness, working slowly • Some ran away • Underground railroad • Harriet Tubman

  33. Migration Generation - Resistance • Subtle Resistance: Stealing food, faking illness, working slowly • Some ran away • Underground railroad • Harriet Tubman • Rebellion • Nat Turner Rebellion (1831) • 60 people were killed • Turner and others were executed

  34. Nat Turner’s Rebellion • In the aftermath, there was widespread fear, and white militias organized in retaliation against slaves. The state executed 56 slaves accused of being part of the rebellion. In the frenzy, many innocent enslaved people were punished. At least 100 blacks, and possibly up to 200, were murdered by militias and mobs. Across the South, state legislatures passed new laws prohibiting education of slaves and free blacks, restricting rights of assembly and other civil rights for free blacks, and requiring white ministers to be present at black worship services.

  35. Migration Generation - Resistance • Subtle Resistance: Stealing food, faking illness, working slowly • Some ran away • Underground railroad • Harriet Tubman • Rebellion • Nat Turner Rebellion (1831) • 60 people were killed • Turner and others were executed • Christianity • Promised Land (Freedom) • Stories of Jewish enslavement by Egypt • Go Down Moses (traditional spiritual): • When Israel was in Egypt's Land:Let my people go.Oppress'd so hard they could not stand,Let my people go • Refrain:Go down Moses'way down in Egypt's landTell ol' Pharaoh,Let my peoples go. • Thus saith the Lord, bold Moses said:Let my people go.If not I'll smite your firstborn dead,Let my people go.: • O let us all from bondage flee;Let my people go.And let us all in Christ be free!Let my people go.

  36. Antebellum South Introduction Southern Society Economics of Slavery Generations of Slavery • Charter Generation • Plantation Generation • Revolution Generation • Migration Generation • Slave Life • Market • Resistance • Justification • Emancipation Generation Conclusion

  37. Migration Generation - Justification • Bible

  38. Migration Generation - Justification • -Curse of Ham • “Cursed be Canaan; lowest of slaves shall he be to his brothers.” (Genesis 9: 20-27) • Harsh Treatment • “When a slave owner strikes a male or female slave with a rod and the slave dies immediately, the owner shall be punished. But if the slave survives a day or two, there is no punishment; for the slave is the owner’s property.” (Exodus 21: 20-21) • Compliance • “Slaves, obey your earthly masters with fear and trembling, in singleness of heart, as you obey Christ.” (Ephesians 6:5)

  39. Migration Generation - Justification • Bible • History

  40. Migration Generation - Justification • Ancient Greeks and Romans owned slaves • U.S. Constitution protected slavery • 3/5 Compromise • Founders often owned slaves • Washington • Jefferson

  41. Migration Generation - Justification • Bible • History • Paternalism

  42. Migration Generation - Justification • Slave owners served as paternal guides to slaves • “Civilization” and Christianity were brought to be people slave owners considered inferior • They provided the slaves food and shelter

  43. Migration Generation - Justification • Bible • History • Paternalism • Social

  44. Migration Generation - Justification • George Fitzhugh – Pro-slavery Argument • Described Northern factory workers as “Wage Slaves” • No one looked after factory workers’ needs • Argued slave owners took care of slaves even when slaves grew old and sick

  45. Antebellum South Introduction Southern Society Economics of Slavery Generations of Slavery • Charter Generation • Plantation Generation • Revolution Generation • Migration Generation • Slave Life • Market • Resistance • Justification • Emancipation Generation Conclusion