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**Identify three of the significant reform movements from the early 1800’s. PowerPoint Presentation
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**Identify three of the significant reform movements from the early 1800’s.

**Identify three of the significant reform movements from the early 1800’s.

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**Identify three of the significant reform movements from the early 1800’s.

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  1. **Identify three of the significant reform movements from the early 1800’s. • Temperance, public education, abolition, women’s rights, 2nd Great Awakening

  2. Why did many Americans settle in Texas in the early 1800s? • invited by Mexico, wanted chance to own land

  3. Why did Santa Anna lay siege to the Alamo? What happened as a result of fighting between Mexico & Texas? settlers were refusing to follow Mexican Laws, Texas won its independence

  4. What is “Manifest Destiny”? The belief that the U.S. would someday control the land from coast to coast.

  5. ***Who opposed the Mexican American War? Why? Whigs and Abolitionists, opposed extension of slavery

  6. What was the result of the Mexican American War? The United States defeated Mexico and bought the land you’re sitting on

  7. What was the first time our government officially compromised over slavery? 3/5 Compromise

  8. What was the result of giving Kansas and Nebraska popular sovereignty over slavery? Bleeding Kansas (fighting over slavery)

  9. Why was the Dred Scott decision significant? • it maintained that slaves remained property regardless of the circumstances

  10. What was John Brown hoping to do when he took over the arsenal at Harpers’ Ferry? • arm slaves who would take part in a widespread revolt

  11. Name two advantages the South had at the start of the Civil War. Better generals, defensive war, passion for their cause

  12. Name three advantages the North had at the start of the Civil War. larger population, more industry, better transportation, more food production

  13. What was the first actual fighting of the war? SC firing on Ft. Sumter

  14. What happened to the Southern industrial and agricultural production facilities during the war? They were almost totally wiped out

  15. What was the official name of the South’s government? Who was it’s President CSA (Confederate States of America), Jefferson Davis

  16. What was the bloodiest single day of fighting during the Civil War? Battle of Antietam

  17. What was it about the style of fighting in the Civil War that led to such huge numbers of casualties? you would lead large #s of your men in an attempt to break lines of large #s of the opposition (e.g. Picket's Charge)

  18. What was the purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation? What did it give the Union? Free the slaves in rebellious states, moral cause for fighting the war

  19. What two Union victories happened on July 4, 1863? Why were they important? Gettysburg (turned Lee back from DC) and Vicksburg (control of the Mississippi)

  20. What was Lincoln’s main point in the Gettysburg Address? no nation had ever been founded on the idea of the equality of all men, and this was a cause well worth fighting for

  21. Who marched through the South in 1864-1865 with the goal of forcing them to surrender? How? Sherman, waging “total war”

  22. **What was Lincoln’s philosophy on reconstruction? Why was he unable to implement it? Heal the wounds (malice toward none…), he was assassinated 6 days after the war ended

  23. What did the 13th Amendment do? Made slavery illegal

  24. What President did the Radical Republicans have a major problem during Reconstruction? Why? Andrew Johnson, he appeared to be sympathetic to the South

  25. Why did the Radical Republicans push for the 14th Amendment? Southern States were passing Black Codes

  26. **What was a carpetbagger? A scalawag? a northerner who came south to help with reconstruction, a southerner that sympathized with the north

  27. **Name 2 things that kept freedmen from gaining true equality during reconstruction. sharecropping, KKK, black codes, racist attitudes

  28. How did sharecropping keep many freedmen in the same basic conditions as slavery? Put them in debt to landowners, locked to the land living in poverty

  29. Name 2 ways Southern states kept freedmen from voting. poll taxes, literacy tests, threats & violence

  30. Why did Congress impeach Johnson? What was the verdict in his trial? fired Stanton in violation of the Tenure of Office Act, not guilty

  31. Which amendment guaranteed freedmen the right to vote? Fifteenth

  32. What event of 1873 drew the attention of much of the country away from reconstruction? the Panic of 1873 (economic depression)

  33. Why was homesteading attractive to people like immigrants and freedmen? gave them a chance to own land

  34. Why did the lifestyle of the plains Native Americans clash with the permanent fixtures (RRs, farms, etc.) of the settlers? the NAs were nomadic

  35. What gov’t agency was in charge of handling relationships with the Native Americans? Bureau of Indian Affairs

  36. **Give two examples of conflicts between Plains NAs and the settlers/army. Wounded Knee, Sand Creek, Little Big Horn, Chief Joseph

  37. Who led his people on a 3,000 mile journey in an attempt to avoid being placed on a reservation? Chief Joseph (Nez Perce)

  38. What law basically forced Native Americans to accept “white culture”? Dawes Act

  39. **Identify three U.S. gov’t policies that were designed to force the Native Americans to assimilate. reservations, education, English, farming, supplies

  40. What industries were the cornerstones of western settlement? mining and ranching

  41. What infrastructure was necessary for either of these industries to be successful? the Transcontinental Railroad

  42. What were the key inventions in communications? telegraph, telephone, typewriter

  43. **Give two examples of men who took advantage of these new inventions to build powerful business empires. Carnegie (Steel), Rockefeller (oil), Vanderbilt, Stanford, Huntington (RR’s)

  44. What is laissez faire economics? a system with no gov’t control or interference

  45. How do corporations raise capital? sell stock or take loans

  46. What do you call a group of corporations controlled by the same board for common interest? trust

  47. What is a pool? companies in competition divide up market

  48. Why were companies able to pay low wages and maintain poor conditions? huge labor surplus (more workers than jobs)

  49. Give 2 examples of poor working conditions. heat/cold, unsafe machines, long hours, toxic chemicals, low wages

  50. What kind of organizations did workers form to try and improve pay and conditions? How do these orgs get their power? unions, collective bargaining