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Section 2 Objectives – page 201

Section 2 Objectives – page 201

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Section 2 Objectives – page 201

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  1. Section 2 Objectives – page 201 Section Objectives • Sequence the events of the cell cycle. • Relate the function of a cell to its organization in tissues, organs, and organ systems.

  2. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Cell Size Limitations • The cells that make up a multicellular organism come in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. • Considering this wide range of cells sizes, why then can’t most organisms be just one giant cell?

  3. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Diffusion limits cell size • Although diffusion is a fast and efficient process over short distances, ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________. • Because of the slow rate of diffusion, organisms can’t be just ________________.

  4. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 DNA limits cell size • The cell cannot survive unless there is ___________________________________of the cell. • In many large cells, ______________________________________is present. • ____________________________________ensure that cell activities are carried out quickly and efficiently.

  5. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Surface area-to-volume ratio 4 mm 4 mm 2 mm 1 mm 2 mm 1 mm 1 mm 2 mm Surface area = 6 mm2 Volume = 1 mm3 4 mm Surface area = 24 mm2 Volume = 8 mm3 • As a __________increases, its ______________increases much faster than its surface area.

  6. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Surface area-to-volume ratio 4 mm 4 mm 2 mm 1 mm 2 mm 1 mm 1 mm 2 mm Surface area = 6 mm2 Volume = 1 mm3 4 mm Surface area = 24 mm2 Volume = 8 mm3 • If cell size________, the cell would require ____times more _________and would have ____ times more ____________ to excrete.

  7. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Surface area-to-volume ratio 4 mm 4 mm 2 mm 1 mm 2 mm 1 mm 1 mm 2 mm Surface area = 6 mm2 Volume = 1 mm3 4 mm Surface area = 24 mm2 Volume = 8 mm3 • The___________________, however, would increase by a factor of only_________.

  8. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Surface area-to-volume ratio 4 mm 4 mm 2 mm 1 mm 2 mm 1 mm 1 mm 2 mm Surface area = 6 mm2 Volume = 1 mm3 4 mm Surface area = 24 mm2 Volume = 8 mm3 • The cell would either ______________or be ___________________from the buildup of waste products.

  9. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Cell Reproduction • Cell division is the process by which _______________________________________________________________________. • Cell division results in ________________________________________________________________________________________.

  10. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 The discovery of chromosomes • Structures, which_____________________ • ___________________________________, are called chromosomes. • Chromosomes are the _________________ • _______________________________________________________________________. • Accurate transmission of chromosomes during cell division is__________________.

  11. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 The structure of eukaryotic chromosomes Centromere Sister chromatids Supercoil within chromosome Chromosome Continued coiling within supercoil Histone H1 Nucleosome DNA

  12. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 The Cell Cycle • The cell cycle is ______________________ • ___________________________________. • The __________of a cell’s life is spent in the _______________period known as ______________. Interphase

  13. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 The Cell Cycle • Following interphase, a cell enters its period of ______________________called mitosis. • Following mitosis,_______________________________, separating the two daughter cells. Mitosis

  14. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Interphase: A Busy Time • Interphase, the busiest phase of the cell cycle, is_____________________________. Interphase DNA synthesis and replication Centrioles replicate; cell prepares for division Rapid growth and metabolic activity

  15. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Interphase: A Busy Time • During the first part, the___________________________________________________. Interphase Rapid growth and metabolic activity

  16. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Interphase: A Busy Time • In the next part of interphase,_______________________________________________. Interphase DNA synthesis and replication

  17. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Interphase: A Busy Time • After the chromosomes have been duplicated, the cell enters another shorter growth period in which____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. Interphase Centrioles replicate; cell prepares for division

  18. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 The Phases of Mitosis • The four phases of mitosis are: • __________________________ • __________________________ • __________________________ • __________________________

  19. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Prophase: The first phase of mitosis • During prophase,_________________________________________________________. Spindle fibers Disappearing nuclear envelope Doubled chromosome

  20. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Prophase: The first phase of mitosis • The ______________________________ • ____________are called sister chromatids. Sister chromatids

  21. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Prophase: The first phase of mitosis • Sister chromatids are ______________by a structure called a centromere, which plays a role in chromosome ___________ during mitosis. Centromere

  22. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Metaphase: The second stage of mitosis • During metaphase, the chromosomes_____________________________________________________________________________. Centromere Sister chromatids

  23. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Anaphase: The third phase of mitosis • During anaphase, the ________________and the sister chromatids are ______________to opposite poles of the cell.

  24. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Telophase: The fourth phase of mitosis • During telophase, ___________________are formed. The cells _______________as the cell cycle proceeds into the next interphase. Nuclear envelope reappears Two daughter cells are formed

  25. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Cytokinesis • Following telophase, the _________________________in a process called cytokinesis. • Cytokinesis differs between plants and animals. • Toward the end of telophase in__________, the plasma membrane ________________in along the equator.

  26. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Cytokinesis • Plant cells have a rigid cell wall, so the plasma membrane ___________________in. • A structure known as the ______________is laid down across the cell’s equator. • A ____________________around each cell, and new cell walls form on each side of the _____________until separation is complete.

  27. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Results of Mitosis • When mitosis is complete, _________ • _______________remain as ________ cells. • In multicellular organisms, cell growth and reproduction result in _____________________________________________________to perform a specific function.

  28. Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Results of Mitosis • Tissues organize in various combinations to form organs that ___________________________________________within the organism. • ____________________________that work together form an organ system.