Poetic devices Brianna Kiana Kristina Blake Bryce
Verbal Irony Examples: • “This bread is as soft as concrete” • “Clear as mud” • “That was almost as fun as a root canal” When the speaker says something that is opposite to what they really mean. Similar to sarcasm.
“Humanity i love you because you are perpetually putting the secret of life in your pants and forgetting it’s there and sitting down on it and because you are forever making poems in the lap of death Humanity i hate you” Example in Poetry “Humanity I Love You” by E.E. Cummings
Situational Irony When an outcome is contradictory to what was expected. Example: “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” by Coleridge “Water, water, everywhere And all the boards did shrink; Water, water everywhere. Nor any drop to drink”
Dramatic Irony When a situation is understood by the audience but not grasped by one of more of the characters. Can be used to create emotions such as suspense or humor in order to draw the audience into the story. Example: In “Romeo and Juliet” by Shakespeare Romeo is told that Juliet has died and plans to kill himself. However, the audience knows that she is just in a deep sleep waiting for him to return.
The repetition of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent words or words that are close together in a sentence. Alliteration Example from Edgar Allen Poe’s “The Raven” “Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing, Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before;”
Euphony Example from Robert Frost’s “The Tufts of Flowers” `As all must be,' I said within my heart, `Whether they work together or apart.' But as I said it, swift there passed me by On noiseless wing a 'wildered butterfly, Seeking with memories grown dim o'er night Someresting flower of yesterday's delight. Attempting to group words together with complimentary consonant sounds that allow for the words to sound smooth, harmonious and pleasing to the ear when spoken (this is the opposite of cacophony).
Both are uses of clashing and unmelodious sounds within a group of words. These create the opposite effects that euphony, assonance and consonance do within a piece of writing. Cacophony/Dissonance Example: “The Dalliance of Eagles” by Walt Whitman “Skirting the river road, (my forenoon walk, my rest,) Skyward in air a sudden muffled sound, the dalliance of the eagles, The rushing amorous contact high in space together, The clinching interlocking claws, a living, fierce, gyrating wheel…”
Assonance The repetition of vowel sounds in nearby words. It is used to reinforce the meaning of words or assist in setting the mood of a piece of writing. Example: “Early Moon” by Carl Sandburg “Poetry is old, ancient, goes back far. It is among the oldest of living things.Soold it is that no manknowshow and why the first poems came.”
Consonance When the repetition of consonants in a word or phrase is emphasized by the differing vowels within them. Examples: • Linger, longer and langour – the n’s and r’s show consonance • Rider, reader, ruder – the d’s and r’s show consonance
Repetition An instance of using a wordor phrase more than once in a short passage. It is used as a way of dwelling on or emphasizing a point. Example: “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” by Robert Frost "The woods are lovely, dark, and deep, But I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep, And miles to go before I sleep.”
When a person exclaims to or makes a speech towards a person who is dead or absent from the story, or to an element which is personified. Apostrophe Example: In “Macbeth” by Shakespeare Lady Macbeth reads a letter from Macbeth and speaks out loud to him about how he should kill King Duncan, though Macbeth isn’t there.
Euphemism The act of substituting a mild, indirect, or vague term for one considered harsh, blunt, or offensive. Examples: • Passed away instead of died • Big boned instead of heavy or overweight • Calling a person a senior instead of old
onomatopoeia The formation of a word by imitation of a sound of the objects or actions it is referred to. Examples: • The cat meowed • The pans went crashing to the floor and made a big BANG!
rhetorical question Question may be asked for effect, but no answer is needed. Rhetorical questions are commonly used in speeches and informal types of writing, and often provoke thought. Examples: • “If practice makes perfect , and no one is perfect, then why practice?” • If your friend jumped off a bridge , would you do it too?