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Axial Skeleton

Axial Skeleton

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Axial Skeleton

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  1. Axial Skeleton

  2. Axial Components • The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones forming the trunk and skull. • Vertebral Column: is composed of 26 bones. • From superior to inferior it consists of • 7 cervical (neck), • 12 thoracic • 5 lumbar vertebrae • 5 fused sacral bones • 4 coccygeal • Ribs and Sternum: The axial skeleton also contains 12 pairs Ribs • Skull: The skull consists of 22 bones fused together to form a rigid structure • Other Parts: Other bones considered part of the axial skeleton are the middle ear bones

  3. Appendicular Skeleton

  4. Appendicular Composition • The appendicular skeleton forms the major internal support-the upper and lower extremities. • Pectoral Girdle and Upper Extremities • Form by the arms that are attached to and suspended from the axial skeleton via the shoulder (pectoral) girdle. • Upper limb from distal to proximal • Pelvic Girdle and Lower Extremities: • The lower extremities, or legs, are attached to the axial skeleton via the pelvic or hip girdle. • Lower Limb from Distal to Proximal

  5. Characteristics of a Bone • Bones are form by connective tissue made by osteocytes cells • Bones are encased by a periosteum, a connective tissue sheath. • All bones have a central marrow cavity.

  6. Bone Cells • Osteocytes • Osteoblasts • Osteoclasts

  7. Bone Type • There are two types of bone in the skeleton: • Compact bone • Spongy (cancellous) bone. • Bone Matrix

  8. Types of Bone • Long bones • Short bones • Flat bones • Irregular bones • Sesamoid

  9. Joints • The bones of the skeleton articulate with each other to perform structure or function. • Joints are • Immobile Joints • Mobile Joints

  10. Types of Joints • Ball and socket • Hinge • Rotating or pivot • Plane or gliding • Condylar

  11. Fibrous Joints • Also known as Synarthroses • Composed of bones united by fibrous tissue and are nonsynovial. Types of FJ • Suture • Syndesmosis • Gomphosis

  12. Cartilaginous Joints • Also know as Amphiarthoses • Composed of 2 slightly moveable joints connected by fibrocartilage Types of CJ • Synchondrosis • Symphysis

  13. Synovial Joints • Also known as Diarthoses • Provide free movement between joint. Characteristics of Joint • Jnt cavity • Articular cartilage • Synovial membrane • Synovial fluid • Fibrous capsule

  14. (Cont.) Synovial Joints • Also known as Diarthoses • Provide free movement between joint. Types of SJ • Uniaxial • Biaxial • Multi-axial

  15. Specific Joints Shoulder: • Sternoclavicular Joint • Acromioclavicular Joint • Glenohumeral Joint • Scapulothoracic Joint

  16. Works Cited • Morrison Media LLC. “NPTAE Secrets.” 2008. 1-171. Print. • Miles, Scott. Scorebuilders.“PTA Exam.” 2010.