Kingdom Plantae • Algae – Plant Ancestry • Bryophytes (mosses) • Pteridophyte (ferns) • Gymnosperms (seed plants) • Angiosperms (flowering plants)
From Algae to Terrestrial Plants Kingdom Protista Kingdom Plantae Algae Seaweeds Green Algae Plants Algae – plant-like protists (photosynthetic); they are unicellular or multicellular Seaweeds – multicellular algae; has three (3) phyla: brown, red and green
Green Algae: Plant Ancestry • Charophytes(closest ancestor) • are photosynthetic & aquatic commonly in fresh water • less commonly in saltwater can also be found (rarely) in sea ice; tree surfaces, and animal furs • have same type of chlorophyll: chlorophyll a & b,and so same colours as plants • have same structural composition: cell walls containing cellulose • store food reserves as starch • have same biochemical component: peroxisomes(metabolize fatty acids)
Terrestrial Adaptations of Plants Cuticle – waxy coating, protects cells from desiccation Stomata – pores on leaf, involved in gas exchange Vascular bundles – Xylem and phloem Xylem: transport water and minerals from the roots up. Phloem: transport organic nutrients eg. glucose to different part of the plants. Secondary compounds – Hormones Auxin: coordinate plant development (growth and cell division) Cytokinins: involved in cell differentiation, division and flowering Gibberellin: work with Auxin to control cell growth and fruit development
Bryophytes(mosses, liverworts, & hornworts) • Exhibit embryonic condition • male = antheridium • female = archegonium • - Flagellated sperm (swim through water) • - No vascular tissue (watery flesh – eg. In celery) • - No lignin(short stature) Moss Hornwort Liverwort
Bryophytes(mosses, liverworts, & hornworts) • - Reproduce asexually by vegetative reproduction, or sexually • Interesting Fact: • dried peat, from compressed moss, used as a fuel, electricity.
Pteridophytes(ferns, club ‘moss’, horsetails) • Exhibit embryonic condition • Male organ: anteridium • Female organ: archegonia • True roots and leaves • Roots have lignified vascular tissues (structured) Interesting Fact: These were around during the “Carboniferous” period 362-290 million years ago.
Pteridophytes(ferns, club ‘moss’, horsetails) Like bryophytes, these plants need water to complete their life cycle because sperm have to swim to the archegonia to fertilize the eggs.
Gymnosperms: Seed-Bearing Plants(Conifers, Gingkos, Cycads) • Reproductive structures: • male: pollen cones • female: seed cones • Male cones release pollen grains, which carried by wind to female cones. • Once inside, the pollen grain produces sperm cells by mitosis. • 3. These sperm cells leave the pollen grain and fertilize the ovules in the seed cones. Interesting Fact: Conifers provide a supply of softwood (furniture, paper) for us.
Angiosperms: Flower & Fruit-Bearing Plants(i.e. Rice, banana, cacti, sunflowers, etc.) • Most successful group of plants • Uses flowers as their reproductive structure so water is not required • Floral structures also serve to protect their ovules and their seeds can be dispersed through various methods: • wind • birds, humans – eating fruits • insects – bee pollination
Floral Components & Fruit Development pollen grains • Reproductive organs: • Male: Stamen (anther has pollen) • Female: Ovary (contains ovule) • When pollen lands on the stigma, it travels down to the ovule through the style. • Before fertilizing the egg, two (2) sperms are generated by mitosis. • Double fertilization: • 1 sperm fertilizes the egg • the other sperm combines with 2 polar nuclei to form endosperm(food-storing tissues – fleshy part of the fruit) anther stigma ovary stamen petal ovule sepal receptacle
Seed Variation Seeds vary in size and can stop growing or remain dormant. Monocots - produce seeds in which the embryo has only one cotyledon (seed leaf) Dicots- produce seeds in which the embryo has two cotyledons
Summary of Kingdom Plantae Non-vascular Plants Vascular Plants Bryophytes(mosses) Spore-Producing Plants Seed-Producing Plants Pteridophytes(ferns) Gymnosperms Angiosperms (conifers) (flowering plants)