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Flash Memory Built-in Self-Test with Enhanced Test Mode Control

Flash Memory Built-in Self-Test with Enhanced Test Mode Control

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Flash Memory Built-in Self-Test with Enhanced Test Mode Control

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  1. Flash Memory Built-in Self-Test with Enhanced Test Mode Control Advisor: Cheng-Wen Wu, Ph.D. Student: Yan-Ting, Lai June 3, 2004

  2. Outline • Introduction • Flash Memory Testing Issues • Flash Memory Built-in Self-Test Issues • Proposed BIST Design • Experimental Results and Prototyping System • Conclusion

  3. USB driver Introduction (1/2) • Flash memory is a type non-volatile memory which can be programmed or erased electrically • Flash memory is widely used in many applications such as DSC, cell phone, USB driver, etc. DSC Cell-phone

  4. Introduction (2/2) • The basic operations of Flash memory are Read, Program and Erase

  5. Flash Memory Testing Issues • Reliability issues • Disturbances • Over-erasing • Endurance • Retention • Ad-hoc test can’t provide sufficient fault coverage • Long program/erase time • Test access issues for embedded Flash memory • High ATE cost, and grows rapidly with memory performance improvement

  6. Solutions • Reasonable fault models • Model reliability-related defects • Efficient test algorithms • Provide easy implementation • Reduce test time • Increase fault coverage • Built-in self-test (BIST) circuit for Flash memory • Replace or reduce the requirement of ATE • Reduce the complexity of test flow • “Built-in Self-Test and Built-in Self-Repair will be essential to test embedded memories and to maintain production throughput and yield” [ITRS 2003]

  7. Previous BIST for Flash Memory (1/3) • V. Mastrocola proposed a BIST design for low cost testing of a stand alone Flash memory • This BIST is realized by using LFSR with internal address counter and clock available in Flash memory • Burst read operation is used to reduce the read time • At-speed testing at 60Mhz and maximum test coverage using a low cost ATE is possible • The feedback polynomial can be selected during testing Source: V. Mastrocola et al., IOLTW01

  8. Previous BIST for Flash Memory (2/3) • P. Bernardi presented a P1500-compatible programmable BIST for embedded Flash memory • A custom processor wrapper is used to provides low area overhead, wiring cost and high flexibility • The designed instruction set allows the processor to execute the March-like algorithms • The efforts to modify test program and the test architecture for different flash models are reduced by using this method Source: P. Bernardi et al., DATE03

  9. Previous BIST for Flash Memory (3/3) • J.C. Yeh proposed March-FT algorithm to cover all the disturbance faults and traditional RAM functional faults • S.K. Chiu proposed Diagonal test scheme to reduce the test time • The above researchers also presented a BIST design using their proposed algorithms • Y.Y. Shih proposed a BIST circuit design to suit for the Hi-V operation of flash memory and provide a low cost diagnosis system Source: J.C. Yeh et al., DELTA02 Source: S.K. Chiu et al.,ITC02 Source :Y.Y. Shih’s thesis

  10. Flash Memory BIST Issues • Various Flash memory architectures • Built-in Self-Test and Built-in Self-Diagnosis • Test flow simplification • Programmability for flexibility • Test pin reduction • Test time reduction • Device protection

  11. Approaches for Flash memory BIST • A flexible BIST architecture can be used with the modification of test pattern generator (TPG) • BIST & BISD are both needed or integrated • Supports Burn-in or Cycling test to reduce test complexity • On-line programmable • Use fewer I/O to reduce ATE pin cost • Utilization of engineering test mode to reduce test time • Device protection function

  12. Proposed BIST I/O Specification

  13. BIST Functions • Three modes • Test Mode : Test with built-in test algorithm • Diagnosis Mode : Test with shift-in algorithms • Burn-in Mode : Cycling read through all addresses • Three kinds report methods • “Go/No-Go” • “Error Information for Repair” (EIR) • “Error Information for Diagnosis” (EID) • Reset wait function

  14. Flash Memory Target Faults • Disturb Faults: • Program Disturbance • Word-line Program Disturbance (WPD) • Word-line Erase Disturbance (WED) • Bit-line Program Disturbance (BPD) • Bit-line Erase Disturbance (BED) • Read Disturbance (RD) • Over Erase/Program (OE/OP) Faults • Conventional RAM Faults • SAF, TF, SOF, AF, CFst Source: J.C. Yeh et al. ,DELTA02

  15. Support Test Algorithms • Test Mode • March-FT (built-in test algorithm) • (f); ↑(r1,p0,r0);↑(r0); (f); ↓(r1,p0,r0); ↓(r0); • In Diagnosis Mode, we can shift-in any combinations of our defined test commands as user-defined test algorithms • March-FD (recommended) • (f); ↑(r1); ↑(r1,p0,r0); (f); ↑(r1);↓(r1,p0,r0,r0); ↑(r0,p0); ↑(r0); • MSCAN (recommended) • (f); ↓(r1); ↓(p0); ↓(r1); • Burn-in Mode • ↑(r1); ↑(r0); ↓(r1); ↓(r0); ↑(r1); ↓(r0); ↓(r1); ↑(r0);

  16. Command Format 4 2 1 0 CMD DBG DIR CMD: Algorithm Elements & BIST Operation DBG: Data Background DIR : Address Direction

  17. Test Time Evaluation by RAMSES-FT Source: K.L Cheng et al. ,VTS02 FLASH memory simulator. This memory is NAND type (BiAND gate). Memory block size : 16896x8 (16KByte) Row x Col : 16x8448 Test length : 2(erase_time) + 64(page_program_time) + 192(page_read_time) Test time : 23.7792 msec / block Fault coverage : BPD : 1.0 WPD : 1.0BED : 1.0 WED : 1.0RD : 1.0 OE : 1.0SAF : 1.0 TF : 1.0SOF : 1.0 CFst : 0.99829018116AF : 0.99658036232 Total Blocks: 2048 Total test : 23.7ms x 2048= 48.72s E: 2ms Page_P: 200us Page_R: 10us+50ns*527 =36.35us

  18. Test Mode Parallel Program/Erase

  19. Reduced Test Time Time Specification Total Test Time for Whole Chip Test time improvement = 35.6%

  20. Error Format Err Syndrome Err Address d0 a24 a0 d15 Err Syndrome : Error syndrome information Err Address : Faulty address information Total Shift-Out Cycles = 41 Err Address Err Section Err Syndrome e0 d15 a24 e4 d0 a0 Err Section : Indicate which operation reads fault Err Syndrome : Error syndrome information Err Address : Faulty address information Total Shift-Out Cycles = 46

  21. Modified BIST Design

  22. Encoded Error Information

  23. EIR Shift-Out Cycles Overall Shift-Out Cycles Reduction Ratio ≈ 80%

  24. Original Flash Memory Design BIST Combined with Flash Memory

  25. BIST Execution Flow

  26. Reset Wait

  27. Test Mode Simulation Result Flash (w1) (r1,p0,r0) (r1)

  28. Diagnosis Mode Simulation Result Shift OutCycles FaultFree

  29. Hardware Overhead Estimation • Due to the canceling of this project, we used TSMC 0.35 um CMOS technology instead of EMTC’s library to do estimation

  30. Comparison of Previous BIST

  31. Flash memory in Socket & FPGA PC Logic Analyzer Data Log or Direct Access Configure FPGA Error Log Analysis Prototyping System

  32. Erase Process

  33. Program Process

  34. Prototyping Results • We have three test chips to verify our design • The ATE’s results about chip2 and chip3 fail is due to the fail of I/O open/short test • Our prototyping system can access them all at a lower speed and get interesting results

  35. Error Log of Test Chip

  36. Diagnosis Results for Chip2 Block 0 Block 0 Block 1 Block 1 Block 2 Block 2 Plane 1 Plane 0 Block 651 Block 1020 Block 1021 Block 1021 Block 1022 Block 1022 Block 1023 Block 1023

  37. Conclusions • We proposed a programmable BIST design with enhanced test mode control for Flash memory whose area overhead is about 0.5% • The engineering test mode operations are used to reduce test time • Parallel shift-out mechanism is used to reduce unaccepted long shift-out cycles • Reset Wait function provides device protection • A low cost prototyping system for diagnosis is presented to reduce the diagnosis scheme cost

  38. Future Work • Built-In Self-Redundancy Analysis (BIRA) is needed to support internal redundancy analysis and reduce shift-out cycles • In order to improve the yield, Built-In Self-Repair (BISR) should be developed • More efforts should be put on to construct a simple and effective Flash memory physical model to do failure analysis and memory diagnosis