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  1. Today we will… • Identify the information handling questions which will be assessed in Higher Modern Studies.

  2. Success Criteria • Using sources I can make a judgement as to the extent of accuracy given to a statement. • I can demonstrate how to answer this type of question.

  3. Objectivity In this type of question you have to interpret and evaluate up to three complex sources of information detecting and explaining the extent of objectivity. If you are deciding how objective a statement is, you are being asked to decide how accurate it is and whether it lacks bias or not. Look at the specimen question: To what extent is it accurate to state that minimum unit pricing (MUP) is needed to reduce alcohol-related problems in Scotland(8)

  4. What you need to do is find evidence which supports the view and evidence that does not support the view. • In pairs highlight the information in the sources which SUPPORTS the statement in ONE COLOUR • Highlight the information in the sources which DOES NOT SUPPORT the statement in a DIFFERENT COLOUR

  5. Writing your Answer • You can get up to 6 marks for the use of sources of evidence. • You have to show both sides i.e. how the evidence supports the view and how it does not. • For each side of the argument you must give three different pieces of evidence and you must synthesise or link the source information. • You are also credited up to 2 marks for any comment/ analysis of the origin and reliability of sources. • Up to 2 marks are also available for an overall judgement as to the extent of accuracy/objectivity of the view. • In order to get full marks you MUST make an overall judgement as to the extent of accuracy of the given statement. • You MUSTrefer to all sources in your answer

  6. Summary-OTHTOE • Opening statement using quote from the question • Two paragraphs of evidence to support this view, with links that are synthesised • HOWEVER – statement acknowledging the other side • Two paragraphs of evidence to oppose the view with links that are synthesised • Overall conclusion • Evaluation of sources

  7. How to write your answer O and T The statement is accurate when it states that MUP is needed to reduce alcohol related problems in Scotland. The evidence for this is shown in Source A when the SNP deputy leader Nicola Sturgeon is quoted as saying ”it is no coincidence that as affordability of alcohol has plummeted in recent decades, alcohol related deaths have increased” and this is compared to evidence in Source A which states that “The SNP claims that MUP would lead to 1,200 fewer hospital admissions” demonstrating that MUP would be effective as it would tackle the amount of alcohol-related illness. This is supported in Source B where it tells us that in 2011/12, the death rate for alcohol-related illnesses was at around 650 deaths per 100,000 which it too high, clearly showing the need for a measure to reduce this such as MUP.

  8. The evidence can also be shown in Source A when it states “ Health indicators highlight that areas of deprivation have witnessed the highest increase in chronic liver disease (associated with abuse of alcohol) “ and is further proven in Source A which states that “In 1993 alcohol-related deaths per 100,000 in the most wealthy area was 3 compared to 14 in the most deprived area. By 2003 it stood at 5 and 53 respectively, showing the significant increase in alcohol related deaths in deprived areas. This is supported in Source C where we can see that in areas such as Glasgow and Greenock (which according to Source A are poorer) death rates for alcohol-related illnesses are much higher. For example, in Glasgow Shettleston there are 76 deaths per 100,000 compared to just 11 per 100,000 in rich areas like East Renfrewshire. Therefore it is clear that it is accurate to state that the MUP would be effective as it would make alcohol less affordable for poorer Scots.

  9. How to write your answer-H and T However, there is also evidence that the statement is not accurate. The evidence is shown in Source A which tells us that the MUP policy has not been enforced yet and states “alcohol-related hospital admissions have declined over recent years” and in Source B we can see that alcohol-related hospital admissions and discharges are decreasing anyway, showing that the rate of admissions and discharges has fallen from 700 per 100,000 people to 650 per 100,000 people and this suggests that MUP is not necessary as the situation is improving regardless. This is supported again in Source A where it tells us that doctors accept that there has been a reduction in alcohol-related deaths. Demonstrating that MUP is not needed as the impact of alcohol on health is already diminishing.

  10. How to write your answer-O For full marks, you MUST make and overall judgement to the extent of accuracy, e.g. Overall, the evidence clearly shows that it is accurate to an extent to say that MUP is needed to reduce alcohol-related problems in Scotland. Sources A and C make it clear that it is the poorest Scots that are becoming ill and dying because of alcohol abuse and therefore a policy which aims to make alcohol more expensive may well be effective. However, Sources A and B also make the point that alcohol-related deaths and illnesses are decreasing anyway which means that perhaps MUP is not necessary.

  11. Origin/ Reliability of Sources • You can also be credited for making a comment/evaluation of the origin and reliability of the sources. • For example: • Source A- ‘Various’ • Reliability of statistics from the British Electoral Study 2010 • Independent company survey • Source B • Ipsos MORI • What are the advantages and disadvantages of these methods?

  12. How to write your answer-E Origin/Reliability In general the sources are reliable although the usefulness of Source A could be questioned. It is adapted from a number of unnamed sources and so it is unclear where the information has come from. However it does appear that in information is accurate and not exaggerated as it is consistent with my knowledge and it does refer to both the benefits and drawbacks of MUP. Sources B and C contain up-to-date statistical information. Source B is official health figures from the Scottish Government which I fell are reliable. Source C comes from the ONS which is a respected and impartial organisation and so the figures are likely to be accurate.

  13. Structure of answer… • Evidence that shows that the statement is objective (accurate/balanced). • Evidence that shows the statement is not objective (biased/exaggerated/untrue). • Overall comment about how objective the statement is. • Comment on origin/reliability of sources.

  14. Was I successful? • Using sources I can make a judgement as to the extent of accuracy given to a statement. • I can demonstrate how to answer this type of question.