History of Media By Jackson Rogers-Luxton
Purpose of this PowerPoint • The purpose of this PowerPoint is to help the reader further grasp how media has evolved over the years and to show what events have occurred that has brought media to where it is at today. Not many people think about it, but media was built from the ground up like everything else and there were plenty of contributing factors that made it what it is. I will mention the breakthrough events.
3000 B.C – Early Innovations • At the time of 3000 B.C, this is when media actually was born. In this next several years, media would become something bigger than it started out as. • 3500 B.C – In this year, supposedly the Egyptians perfected Hieroglyphics which are small drawings on the walls that have meaningful messages. They’re still around to this day to view and see. • 1500 B.C – Semites eventually come up with the alphabet that has developed into the modern day in age. • 60 B.C – ‘ActaDiurna’ which stands for (days events) was created and this was the birth of news papers so to speak. • 1468 A.D – A man named William Caxton produces the first book with an advertisement in England. This was the real birth age of modern media and how it really started out.
Telegraph Era and the Start of the Industrial Revolution • 1821 – This was the introduction of the first international magazines called ‘The Saturday Evening Post’ • 1844 – The first telegraph line set made by a man named Samuel Morse. Samuel Morse was also the co-inventor of ‘morse code’. • 1858 – The first transatlantic telegraph cable is laid by business man Cyrus West Field. • 1865 – Abraham Lincoln’s assassination is reported by telegraph and print. • 1876 - Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone, one of the most useful inventions ever. • 1877 – Thomas Edison invents the phonograph. • 1885 - George Eastman invents photographic film , a major breakthrough in media history. • 1894- Guglielmo Marconi invents the radio, which would later grow into one of the most popular mediums for media. This was the time where most modern forms of media really begun to take shape and become something more than just text. People were beginning to really experiment with different media forms and heading further out in the creative side of media.
Early 1900s: Industrial Revolution Era and Golden Ages of Radio, TV, and Movies • 1919 – D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford create united artists. • 1920’s – Joseph Maxwell introduces electrical microphones. This was a major breakthrough in media history as electric microphones have become a vital part in producing successful media. • 1923 – First radio network linkup carries the World Series of baseball which was the first coverage of a sporting event. • 1927 – William Paley starts CBS from a 16-affiliate radio network • 1932 – Walt Disney produces the first full colour movie which happened to be one of the biggest turning point in media history to finally be able to make images colourful on a screen. • 1937 – Walt Disney produces the first ever colour animation movie called ‘Snow White’. • 1940’s - Community antenna television system. This would be considered the start of cable television.
Early 1900s: Industrial Revolution Era and Golden Ages of Radio, TV, and Movies • 1940’s – The birth of digital technology came into play and this is supposedly very early internet like stages. • 1941 – The devastating story of Pearl Harbour is reported on the radio. • 1944 – The first original automatic computer was build at Harvard University in the United States. • 1947 – This was the year that major companies NBC and CBS made their first news broadcast. • 1950’s – Black and white televisions become more prominent and more commonly used in middle class American families. • 1951 – Edward R. Murrow becomes the news television pioneer of the century. • 1953 – Queen Elizabeth II’s coronation located at Westminster Abbey brings in the television age internationally. • 1954 – Colour television is eventually approved by the Federal Communications Comission. This was a very productive half century for media, especially the growth and foundation of radio, television and movie entertainment. Although it was not finished here.....
1960’s – Cold War decade • 1960’s – FM radio becomes more prominent and actually makes a real name for itself. • 1960’s – Stereo recording and play back equipment is introduced, making it easier to produce clean audio. • 1960 – The Olympic Games are first screened on T.V internationally. • 1962 – The concept of the ‘Internet’ is proposed by a man named J.C.R Licklider. • 1963 – John F. Kennedy’s assassination is televised internationally. • 1963 – Audio cassette tapes are introduced. • 1964 – The Beatles perform in the USA and take rock music global. • 1968 – The television/news show ‘60 minutes’ makes it’s first television debut. • 1969 – The first ever man to walk on the moon, Neil Armstrong’s pioneering trip is globalised in colour on television. • 1969 – The predecessor of the Internet, DOD’s ARPAnetis introduced. • 1969 – The world famous show ‘Sesame Street’ has it’s television debut. In this decade, more and more content was developed to put on television because it was clear that television would take off quickly and become something more than just a information source. It would very soon begin to open up more jobs and provide more opportunities for people.
1970’s – Social issues decade • 1970’s – Sitcom’s begin to address social issues that are current. • 1970’s – This year was a huge year for digital technology as email was invented. • 1971 – The microprocessor is developed. • 1974 – The founding fathers of the Internet , Vincent Cerf and Bob Kahn. • 1975 – Bill Gates and Paul Allen co found one of the largest computer brands, Microsoft. • 1975 – The VCR (video cassette recorder) is introduced to modern day culture. • 1975 – HBO is eventually uplinked to satellite. • 1976 – Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak co found Microsoft’s most contended opposition, Apple Inc. • 1976 – Cable T.V is broadcast for the first time by a man named Ted Turner. • 1977– VHS-format video cassettes. This decade was where the real birth of Internet and how computing technology really came to be prominent. It was unlike anything anyone had ever seen and was clearly going to be a big deal.
1980’s – Cable television decade • 1980’s – Colour television replaces most black and white televisions in the USA. • 1980’s – The fiber-optic cable was developed. • 1980’s – Hypertexts links to Web. • 1980 – The first online newspaper is created and is called the Columbus Dispatch. • CNN debut and becomes the worlds first ever 24 hour news station to broadcast. • IBM PC, the worlds first ever personal computer to have in your own home and work from. It was the beginning of computer technology and what it has become. • 1981 – Prince Charles and Princess Diana’s wedding has a worldwide audience of roughly 750 million people as it was covered on television. • 1981 – MTV debuts. • 1982 – The introduction of CD’s are bought in and tapes are less frequently used. • 1983 – M*A*S*H finale airs – 77% of viewers tune in.
1980’s – Cable television decade • 1983 – Michael Jackson’s ‘Thriller’ creates the concept of music videos and their usage. • 1984 –African American television sitcom ‘The Cosby Show’ debuts. • 1985 – Microsoft Windows was created. • 1986 – The worlds first commercial email service, MCI was introduced. The 1980’s played a huge part in the history of media by allowing cable television to become more and more popular. The introduction of Microsoft Windows is something that would in the future become one of the most sought after products in the world. Also, the Thriller music video by Michael Jackson was a huge turning point in the history of music and how it relates to media.
1990’s – Digital Decade • 1990’s – This decade was where talk radio was brought to prominence and became much more popular. • 1990’s – Independent film became something more common in this decade. • 1991- The world wide web was invented by John Berners-Lee • 1994 – The direct broadcast satellite service is started. • 1995 – Windows Internet Explorer (the oldest of the web explorers) is created, stunting the real birth of web browsing. • 1995 – The ability to buy clothing and items online is made possible by the creation of Amazon.com • 1997 – DVD’s replace VHS cassette tapes. • 1997 – Titanic rakes in a global box office sale of 1.8 billion dollars. • 1997 – First news blogs are introduced. • 1999 – The web search engine ‘Google’ was introduced. This decade was when modern day web browsing became available with the introduction Windows Explorer being introduced into the mix. Internet was definitely on the rise and was in high demand.
2000+: Age of Media Convergence • 2000’s – Cellphoneswere on the rise and the use of them was becoming extremely frequent. • 2001 – 9/11 attacks are immediately covered on most content mediums like radio, tv and Internet. • 2001 – iPod and mp3 compressed digital files are introduced. • 2001 – Instant message services are created. • 2001 – T.v changes format and becomes digital. • 2002 – This year was the year that satellite radio was introduced. • 2003 – iTunes online music store debuts • 2003 – TiVO and video on demand starts out, • 2004 – 24 hour coverage from the Olympics live in Athens, Greece. • 2004 – The social networking site ‘FaceSmash’ was launched, later would become ‘Facebook’. • 2004 – Nearly half of American homes have Broadband • 2005 – The first dual disc (cd/dvd) of Bruce Springsteen is released.
2000+ - Age of Media Convergence • 2005 – Books become digitalised online with the introduction of Google Library book Project. • 2005 – Facebook became more popular worldwide. • 2006 – Citizen Journalists begin filming events on cellular phones that have cameras incorporated into them. Media from here on out has become more and more intriguing and new things are being created every day to ensure that the is constantly growing and becoming more sophisticated. We often don’t realise how media effects media us as people and how we’re living in this modern day in age. Media impacts our every day lives in such a way that it is almost un noticeable.