A History of Media Past - Pixels
A long long time ago • To be human is to create. • This human impulse to create and express has always been a part of man’s psyche. This trait can seen man’s distant cousin, the Neanderthal.
45,000 B.C.E. • In what is now Hungary, a Neanderthal carves onto a mammoth tusk.
30,000 B.C.E. • In what Modern Germany, someone engraves a horse in a pelvis bone.
10,000 B.C.E • Writing on skin. Tattooing instruments found in Europe.
4,000 B.C.E • Egyptian pharaohs listen to flutes and harps.
3372 B.C.E • Start of the Mayan calendar.
3,000 B.C.E. • Egypt develops hieroglyphic writing. • In the Mediterranean or Near East, an abacus derived from counting boards.
Note: • The Abacus is one of the precursors to the modern computer.
2,000 B.C.E. • Enheduanna, a woman in Mesopotamia, writes first signed text, a hymn • Vikings toot on trumpets. • Nine Greek muses, responsible for poetry, history, comedy, song, dance.
14 C.E. • Rome sets up network of relay runners carrying messages 50 miles in a day.
70 C.E. • Estimated date of Matthew's Gospel.
230 C.E. • Japanese begin keeping historical records.
370 C.E. • Rome is said to have 28 public libraries.
393 C.E. • Church sanctions 27 books of the New Testament; Christian Bible is complete.
450 C.E. • Ink on seals is stamped on paper in China. This is true printing.
598 C.E. • The first school in England, at Canterbury.
600 - 619 C.E. • Books printed in China. • In China, large orchestras, with bells, drums, flutes, gongs, guitars
900 C.E. • The 1001 Arabian Nights of tales within a tale
1038 C.E. • Arab scholar Alhazen describes a room-size camera obscura. • Note: This will ultimately lead to photography and film
1168 • Oxford University is founded.
1300s • Paper is made in England (1309) • Dante Alighieri dies after completing his epic poem, The Divine Comedy. (1321) • Legends of King Arthur are written. (1325)
1387 • Geoffrey Chaucer writes The Canterbury Tales.
1430 – 1450 -1451 - 1465 • Start of Renaissance music era: sacred music, secular madrigals; lute is favored. • Africans carry culture with them as 400 years of slave exports to West begins • Gutenberg’s press prints an old German poem. • Printed music.
1472 -1477 • William Caxton brings Gutenberg’s invention of printing to England. • An advertising poster in England
1482 - 1498 • Leonardo da Vinci begins filling notebooks with ideas, sketches. • Leonardo da Vinci completes The Last Supper.
1500 - 1517 • By now approximately 35,000 books have been printed, some 10 million copies. • Martin Luther nails his "Ninety-five Theses" to a church door in Wittenberg.
1570 • Women forbidden to sing on stage; castration imitates female voice
1593 – 1611-1612 • William Shakespeare, Venus and Adonis. • The King James version of the Bible is published. • The Tempest is performed .
1750 • J.S. Bach dies, signals end of music’s Baroque period.
1789 • New United States proposes Bill of Rights, with freedom of faith, speech, press. • In England, the narrative of a former slave is published.
1890 • Typewriters are in common use in offices. • The $1 Brownie camera; film is 15 cents a roll.
Late 1800s • 1893: Dickson builds a motion picture studio in New Jersey. • Norwegian artist Edvard Munch, The Scream. • Emile Berliner sells 1,000 gramophones, 25,000 records.
1800s • 1895: In Berlin, Max and Emil Skladanowsky show a 15-minute motion picture • 1896: The first comic strip, The Yellow Kid, in the New York American. • 1896: Nikola Tesla invents a spark radio transmitter.
1900s • 1940: U.S. gets first regular TV station, WNBT, New York; estimated 10,000 viewers. • 1943: British code breaking machine Colossus cracks Germany’s Enigma code. (Precursor to computer) • 1949: Network TV established in U.S.
1900s • 1951: Color television sets go on sale. • 1952: EDVAC takes computer technology a giant leap forward. • 1956: IBM ships a hard drive, the 5 MB. 305 RAMAC as big as two refrigerators. • 1958: The microchip; it will enable the computer revolution.
1962: FCC sees a demonstration of cellular technology. • 1963: Sony offers an open-reel videotape recorder for the home, $995. • 1964: IBM’s OS/360 is first mass-produced computer operating system. • 1969: The Woodstock music festival.
1971: ARPANET, Internet forerunner, has 22 university, government connections. • 1973: Computer in England, another in Norway connect to ARPANET. • 1976:Death Race 98 raises public complaints about video games. • 1983: Internet domains get names instead of hard-to-remember numbers.
1985: Cellphones go into cars. • 1987: The Simpsons, animated cartoon, introduced on Fox TV.
Work Citied • "Media History Project." Timeline: Media History n.pag. Web. 23 Aug 2012. <http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/timeline/>.