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School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports: Overview Presented by: Milt McKenna

School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports: Overview Presented by: Milt McKenna

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School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports: Overview Presented by: Milt McKenna

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  1. School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports: OverviewPresented by: Milt McKenna Horner & Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Universities of Oregon & Connecticut

  2. My job today… To describe features of a systems approach to Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS) “BIG IDEAS” SET UP for Action Planning

  3. Coordination/ Collaboration 1999 - 2011

  4. PBIS Maryland Trained Schools by Cohort 14,325 Schools Adopting School-wide PBIS Feb 2011

  5. So,….what is PBIS? School Wide PBIS is: A Frameworkfor enhancing adoption & implementation of a Continuum of evidence-based Interventions to achieve Academically and behaviorally Important outcomes for ALL students. Not a specific practice or curriculum…it’s a general approach to preventing problem behavior Not new…it’s based on long history of behavioral practices & effective instructional design & strategies Not limited to any particular group of students…it’s for all students

  6. What does PBIS look like in a school? • >80% of studentscan tell you what is expected of them & can give behavioral examples because they have been taught, actively supervised, practiced, & acknowledged. • Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed negative. • Administratorsare active participants. • Data & team-basedaction planning & implementation. • Function based behavior supportis a foundation for addressing problem behavior. • Full continuum of behavior supportis available to all students.

  7. A Main Message STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Good Teaching Behavior Management Increasing District & State Competency and Capacity Investing in Outcomes, Data, Practices, and Systems

  8. Core Principles of PBIS • We can: • Teach all children • Intervene early • Use a multi-tier, problem solving model • Use research-based, scientifically validated interventions and strategies • Monitor student progress • Use data to adjust instruction • Use continual assessment: • universal screening, progress monitoring and diagnostics

  9. Challenge #1

  10. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

  11. Challenge # 2

  12. The Prognosis • Students with academic failure and problem behaviors likely will drop out of school and: • be involved with the corrections system • be single parents • be involved with the social services system • be unemployed • be involved in automobile accidents • use illicit drugs Centers for Disease Control, 1993Duncan, Forness, & Hartsough, 1995Carson, Sittlington, & Frank, 1995Wagner, D’Amico, Marder, Newman, Blackorby, 1992Jay & Padilla, 1987Bullis & Gaylord-Ross, 1991

  13. Challenge # 3

  14. Challenge # 4

  15. Challenge # 5 Competing, Inter-related National Goals • Improve literacy, math, geography, science, etc. • Make schools safe, caring, & focused on teaching & learning • Improve student character & citizenship • Eliminate bullying • Prevent drug use • Prepare for postsecondary education • Provide a free & appropriate education for all • Prepare viable workforce • Affect rates of high risk, antisocial behavior • Leave no child behind • Etc….

  16. Challenge # 6 The key is not to prioritize what's on your schedule, but to schedule your priorities.” Steven Covey

  17. Not enough time Too much talk…not enough action Unclear outcomes Too few priorities Too many priorities Too many opinions Multiple competing experts No experts Too many diverse perspectives Too much redundancy Done it before Never done it before Lack of clear outcomes Slow to get started Unstructured Unresolved conflicts ……… Challenges (cont.)

  18. Worry # 1 • Too much to do • We add more and more each year • Nothing is taken away (stop doing this!) • How can we be better prepared to integrate into existing programs?

  19. Worry # 2“TEACHING” by Getting Tough If Russell Still doesn’t improve, we get REAL TOUGH & enforce BOTTOM LINE! Russell: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.” If Russell doesn’t improve, we get TOUGHER Teacher: “Russell, that is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!”

  20. Staff Behaviors !! Common Behavior Concerns Texting and emailing during instruction Talking during instruction Eating, drinking and gum chewing Late arrival, early departure Starting an activity before listening to the instructions or “set up” Inappropriate attire

  21. Increasingly “aversive” reactive discipline continuum • Warning • ODR & warning • ODR & in-school suspension • ODR & out-school suspension • Expulsion hearing

  22. Erroneous assumptions are that the student: • Is inherently “bad” • Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives” • Will be better tomorrow…….

  23. Do Sanctions “work”? • Sanctions such as office referrals or suspensions may appear to “work” in the short term • Removes student • Provides relief to teachers, peers, administrator • We often attribute responsibility for change to student &/or others (family) Jeffrey Sprague, Ph.D. (jeffs@uoregon.edu)

  24. Science of behavior has taught us that children…. • Are NOT born with “bad behaviors” • Do NOTlearn when presented with aversive consequences • Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback - (REINFORCEMENT)

  25. ASSUMPTIONS • BEHAVIOR is learned • BEHAVIOR is teachable • BEHAVIOR occurrence is affected by the environment • BEHAVIOR is changeable • BEHAVIOR is more likely if effective, efficient, and reinforced

  26. ALL BEHAVIORS SERVE SOME FUNCTION Non-examples of Function-Based approach “Function” = outcome, result, purpose, consequence • “Russell, you skipped 2 school days, so we’re going to suspend you for 2 more.” • “Jason, I’m taking your book away because you obviously aren’t ready to learn.” • “You want my attention?! I’ll show you attention, …let’s take a walk down to the office & have a little chat with the Principal.”

  27. Worry # 3“Train & Hope”

  28. PBIS Implementation Logic

  29. PBIS Systems Implementation Logic Visibility Political Support Funding Leadership Team Active Coordination Evaluation Training Coaching Local School Teams/Demonstrations

  30. BIG IDEAS • 3-5 years • Organizational Framework • Critical Features same across schools • unique to the culture of the school • System investment in Coaching Capacity

  31. Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement PBIS OUTCOMES Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Decision Making DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

  32. Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE PBIS ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% APPLYING TRIANGLE LOGIC TO ADULT BEHAVIOR Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students

  33. Behavioral Systems Academic Systems • Intensive, Individually Designed Interventions • Strategies to address needs of individual students with intensive needs • Function-based assessments • Intense, durable strategies • Intensive, Individually Designed Interventions • Address individual needs of student • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Targeted, Group Interventions • Small, needs-based groups for • at risk students who do not respond • to universal strategies • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted, Group Interventions • Small, needs-based groups for at- risk students who do not respond to universal strategies • High efficiency/ Rapid response • Function-based logic • Core Curriculum and • Differentiated Instruction • All students • Preventive, proactive • School-wide or classroom • systems for ALL students • Core Curriculum and • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive • School-wide or classroom systems for ALL students and staff Maryland’s Tiered Instructional and Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) Framework 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%

  34. The need to enhance environmental structures increases The frequency for collecting and acting upon information increases The required resources to address the problem increases Core Support Program: Provided to all, intended to reach most. Continuum of Supports 35

  35. Critical Features • PBIS Team • Faculty/Staff Commitment • Effective Procedures for Dealing with Discipline • Data Entry and Analysis Plan Established • Expectations and Rules Developed • Reward/Recognition Program Established • Lesson Plans for Teaching expectations/rules • Implementation Plan • Classroom Systems • Evaluation

  36. Team-led Process Non-Teaching Family Behavioral Capacity Priority & Status Representation Specialized Support Administrator Team Community Administrator Student Data-based Decision Making Teaching Communications Start with Team that “Works.”

  37. GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started” Team Agreements Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation

  38. Worry # 1 • Too much to do • We add more and more each year • Nothing is taken away (stop doing this!) • How can we be better prepared to integrate into existing programs?

  39. Lessons Learned Avoid “Initiative Overload” by aligning efforts for improvement • All initiatives tied to core outcomes • All initiatives are “evidence-based” • All initiatives have proven implementation effectiveness and efficiency • All initiatives define the “systems” needed for sustainability • All initiatives have efficient measures of fidelity

  40. Team Led Process - Sample Teaming Matrix • Eliminate initiatives that do NOT have a defined purpose and measurable outcome. • 2. Combine initiatives that have the same measurable outcome and/or same target group • 3. Combine initiatives that have 75% of the same staff • 4. Eliminate initiatives that are not tied to School Improvement Goals. Are outcomes measurable?

  41. Implementation of Effective Practices with and without an Implementation Support Team Balas & Boren, 2000; Fixsen, Blase, Timbers, & Wolf, 2001

  42. 80% Staff Buy In • Share/ Present Data • Start Small • Easy Implementation • Showcase Success

  43. What does a reduction of 850 office referrals and 25 suspensions mean?Kennedy Middle School • Savings in Administrative time • ODR = 15 min • Suspension = 45 min • 13,875 minutes • 231 hours • 29, 8-hour days • Savings in Student Instructional time • ODR = 45 min • Suspension = 216 min • 43,650 minutes • 728 hours • 121 6-hour school days

  44. Marketing Strategy • Integrate past school behavior plans • Assure clarity of target areas • Incorporate school colors or mascot Respectful Able Motivated Safe

  45. (Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup) Create working environments where employees: 1 million workers, 80,000 managers, 400 companies 1. Know what is expected 2. Have materials & equipment to do job correctly 3. Receive recognition each week for good work. 4. Have supervisor who cares, & pays attention 5. Receive encouragement to contribute & improve 6. Can identify person at work who is “best friend.” 7. Feel mission of organization makes them feel like their jobs are important 8. See people around them committed to doing good job 9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better) 10. Have opportunity to do their job well.

  46. Office Discipline Referrals What is the belief system in your school around Office Referrals? Why do we complete the referral? Kid-Teacher-Administrator interaction Underestimation of actual behavior Improving usefulness & value Clear, mutually exclusive, exhaustive definitions Continuum of behavior support Positive school-wide foundations W/in school comparisons Distinction between office v. classroom managed

  47. Purpose of Office Referral ?

  48. Nuts andBolts • Brainstorm classroom vs. office managed behaviors • Come to consensus on language to be used • Agree on behaviors to list