Working Smarter with PBIS: Establishing School-Wide Systems of Positive Behavioral Support ISBE EBD/PBIS Network 2005-2006
Illinois – PBIS Starts in 1999 • 1999 – 30 schools in Illinois initial training. • 2005 – 523 schools and growing
Influences on Student Learning In Descending Order of Importance Research by Wallberg & Waxman University of Illinois
Most Important Influences onStudent Learning 1. Metacognitive Processes (student aptitude)-teach children to understand their own thinking. 2. Cognitive Processes (student aptitude)-teacher plans lessons that extend student thinking/higher order thinking skills. 3. Social & Behavioral Attributes (student aptitude)-children know how to behave & exhibit pro-social behaviors. 4. Classroom Management ( instruction &climate)-teacher exhibits strong classroom management skills. 5. Quantity of Instruction (instruction & climate)-available instructional minutes are high quality & devoted to academics. • Home Environment/Parental Support (context)-what happens at home can account for up to 50% of student learning. • Aligning the curriculum to the IL learning Standards (curriculum)-lessons teach to the standards.
School Efforts to Raise Academic Achievement Fall into three categories • Academic Instruction (teacher quality) • School Management (schedule, supervision, curriculum alignment, etc.) • Enabling Component (empowers the learner) Zins, Bloodworth, Weissberg and Wallberg (2004). Building Academic Success on Social and Emotional Learning: What Does the Research Say?
The Enabling Component The 3rd Domain Addresses: • Barriers to Learning • Human Development • Teaching Through Positive Classroom Environments • Positive School Cultures
Children who are given clear behavioral standards and social skills, allowing them to feel safe, valued, confident and challenged, will exhibit better school behavior and learn more. Because of this, the Illinois State Board of Education has developed social/emotional development standards as part of the Illinois Learning Standards. All schools in Illinois now need to have these goals aligned into their curriculum.
Social/Emotional Learning Standards (SEL)Public Act 93-0495 • Newest ISBE Learning Standards • Content & skills for K-12 students for social and emotional learning • Three SEL Goals • Five benchmark levels for each goal that describe what students should know & be able to do
SEL GOALS • Develop self-awareness & self-management skills to achieve school & life success. • Use social-awareness & interpersonal skills to establish & maintain positive relationships. • Demonstrate decision-making skills & responsible behaviors in personal, school, and community contexts.
Integration of Illinois Learning StandardsSocial/Emotional Learning • SEL goals should be integrated within each schools’ matrix and lessons for teaching school-wide expectations Be Respectful Classrooms and Specials*Raise your hand *Treat others kindly *Be tolerant of differences *Use good manners *Use kind & thoughtful language *Listen to & follow all directions *Use 6 inch voices *Clean up after yourself Eg.) Under “Be Respectful” in this school-wide behavior matrix “Use kind and thoughtful language” falls under Stage A, Goal 2C of the Illinois Learning Standard “Use ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ appropriately”
Integration of Illinois Learning StandardsSocial/Emotional Learning • Targeted group and individual interventions should use the school-wide expectations as the framework for the intervention Eg.) This school’s expectations are reflected in their check-in/check-out system: Be Respectful, Be Responsible, Keep Hands and Feet to Self, Follow Directions and Be Ready
Integration of Illinois Learning StandardsSocial/Emotional Learning • Targeted individual and group interventions can be based directly on the standards to help focus on areas of need Eg.) Gary does well in one-on-one situations in the classroom but becomes agitated (rips paper, breaks pencils) when he is in a group situation and things do not go his way. His teacher would like to see him interact more appropriately in group situations by cooperating with peers and completing assigned tasks. Using Stage D, Goal 2C as a guide, Gary’s intervention plan could include: 1.) Demonstrating cooperative behaviors in a group 2.) Practicing reflective listening 3.) Developing a plan that supports the improvement of behaviors within a group
SEL ACTIVITY Reference Walk • Turn to the back section of your manual • Read through the SEL standards • As a group, choose one standard and discuss how PBIS might be used to address it • Share your thoughts
Four Challenges Facing Schools Today • Doing more with less • Educating increasing numbers of students who are more different than similar from each other • Educating students with severe problem behavior • Creating “host environments” or systems that enable adoption & sustained use of effective practices
Context of the Challenges • High rates of problem behavior in schools • Inconsistent approach to problem solving • Data is seldom used when making decisions • Lack of organized procedures/routines that provide positive support for students, staff and parents • Failure to adopt, adapt, & sustain research validated practices
Examples…. • An intermediate/senior high school with 880 students reported over 5,100 office discipline referrals in one academic year. • An elementary school principal reported that over 80% of her office discipline referrals came from 5% of her total school enrollment.
Examples…. • A middle school leadership team discovered that nearly half of the school’s office discipline referrals in one year came from about 6% of the total student enrollment. • An elementary school principal found that over 45% of their behavioral incident reports were coming from the playground.
Examples... • A middle school with 530 students reported 2628 office referrals. • 304 students with at least 1 ODR’s (57%) • 136 students with at least 5 ODR’s (26%) • 34 students with at least 20 ODR’s (6%) • 1 student with 87 ODR’s
Why PBIS is Different!!! The Host Environment Positive changes and sustained use of best practices will only occur when there is: • Active administrative leadership and participation, • Proactive systems (procedures/routines) in place to support the use of effective practices, and • Buy in and participation from staff.
PBIS organizes the Host Environment • How decisions are made(Data) • How things are done (Systems) and • How staff interact with students (Practices) to ensure the sustained use of best practices school-wide.
Summary of PBIS “BIG IDEAS” Systems (How things are done) • Team based problem solving • Data-based decision making • Long term sustainability Data (How decisions are made) • On going data collection & use • ODR’s (# per day per month, location, behavior, student) • Suspension/expulsion, attendance, tardies Practices (How staff interact with students) • Direct teaching of behavioral expectations • On-going reinforcement of expected behaviors • Functional behavioral assessment
Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making DATA Supporting Staff Behavior SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
1. Data -- How Decisions Are Made. Components of decision making with PBIS: - A problem-solving team • Data collection • Data use • Communication with staff about data, patterns, and decisions
How Decisions Are Made (Con’t.) Use of data to decide on the following: • Behavioral expectations (classroom and non-classroom settings) • Which behaviors are managed in the classroom and which behaviors result in an office referral • Supervision procedures for non-classroom settings
2. Practices - How Staff Interact with Students. Every time any adult interacts with any student, it is an instructional moment! PBIS emphasizes… • Teaching behaviors like we teach academics • Modeling and practicing expected behaviors • Reinforcing expected behaviors • Precorrecting to ensure positive behaviors are displayed
5 School-wide Practices of PBIS Define *3-5 Simple School-wide Expectations Teach *Cool Tool Direct Instruction Remind *Clear In-the-Moment Reminders Celebrate *Daily recognition – Gotcha’s *Weekly/quarterly grade-level/whole school celebrations Reteach *Classroom procedure for minor problem behaviors *Office Discipline Referral for major problem behaviors
3. Systems - How Things are Done. • Procedures for non-classroom settings (lunchroom, bus, bathroom, assembly, transition/hallway) • Procedures for reinforcing expected behavior • Procedures for responding to office discipline referrals. • Procedures for meeting the needs of all students (AKA., The Triangle)…
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Individual or Group • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%
Elementary School Administrative and Instructional Savings (76 Illinois PBIS schools) • An Office Discipline Referral (ODR) consumes an average of 15 min of administrative time. A reduction by 18,003 referrals = 270,045 min saved 4,500 hours saved 562 8 hr days saved • An ODR consumes an average of 45 minutes of instructional student time. A reduction by 18,003 referrals = 810,135 min saved 13, 502 hours saved 2,250 6-hr days saved
Middle School Administrative and Instructional Savings(29 Illinois PBIS schools) • An ODR consumes an average of 15 min of administrative time. A reduction by 22,968 referrals = 344,520 min saved 5,742 hours saved 718 8 hour days saved • An ODR consumes an average of 45 minutes of student time instructionally. A reduction by 22,968 referrals = 103,356 min saved 17,226 hours saved 2,871 6 hour days saved
Positive Behavior Support Universal School-Wide Assessment School-Wide Prevention Systems Targeted Intensive Group Interventions AnalyzeStudent Data Interviews, Questionnaires, etc. Intervention SimpleStudentInterventions Assessment Complex Individualized Interventions Observations and ABC Analysis Team-Based Wraparound Interventions Multi-Disciplinary Assessment & Analysis
Functions of PBIS GREEN Leadership Team • Meet monthly as a Building Team with Set Agenda • Complete School Wide Survey as Team & Building Staff • Develop 3-5 School Wide Expectations • Create Visuals to Advertise 3-5 School Wide Expectations • Develop Behavioral Matrix • Create & Distribute “Cool Tools” to Staff • Set up & maintain Building Data Management System • Set up & maintain Building Reinforcement System • Share Data with Building Staff Monthly • Inform School Audiences of PBIS Activities in Building (parents, community members, District Administration, Board of Education) • Assist Administration in Developing continuum for Managing Inappropriate Behavior • Identifying Yellow & Red Students for additional Behavioral Support • Be Cheerleaders for PBIS Process in Building
PBIS Building Leadership Green Team Leader (Coach) • A PBIS Green Team Member • Role of Building Leadership Team Leader • Facilitate scheduling of year long monthly meeting dates • Coordinate & facilitate monthly team meetings • Create agenda for monthly PBIS Green Team Meetings • Facilitates the PBIS Quarterly Team Checklist • In coordination with Data Manager, complete the School Profile Form at the end of the year • Coordinates EBS Survey for staff • Point person for Building PBIS team
PBISGreen TeamData Manager • A PBIS Green Team Member • Role of Data Manager • Organize the data for the team • Create the Graphs • Sees that Office Referral are being entered • Assist the team with interpretation • Coordinates the Monthly Building Staff presentations • Point person for Communication between team & PBIS Coach • Coordinates with Green Team Leader End of Year Data Summary Form
First Steps of PBIS Activities for Today
Action Plan Elements:School-wide Level Self evaluate building strengths and needs School-Wide Survey Establish a clear set of positively stated behavioral expectations School-Wide Expectations Clearly define expected behaviors for classroom/non-classroom Matrix/Behavioral Curriculum Establish procedures for teaching expected behavior Cool Tools Establish a continuum to encourage/celebrate expected behaviors Reinforcement Plan Establish procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior Problem Solving & ODR Establish procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation Data Collection & Use
Self-Evaluate Strengths and Needs: Using the PBIS School-Wide Survey • Use survey with PBIS team and whole staff • Four sections of the survey • School-Wide Systems • Non-Classroom Systems • Classroom Systems • Individual Student Systems • Survey summary - Identify three strengths & three priorities
Team Time • Complete PBIS surveys individually • School-wide system • Classroom system • Non-classroom system • Individual student system • Discuss School-Wide System items as a team • Identify 3 strengths and prioritize 3 needs
1. Establish School-wide Behavioral Expectations Oak Terrace Elementary – “Oak Terrace Pride” Be Respectful Be Safe Be Ready to Learn Frye Elementary - “Fab Four” Respect Yourself Respect Others Respect Property Be Here – Be Ready
Examples Continued…. Orland Center Elementary – “Gotcha Rules” Be Safe Be Caring Be Respectful Be Here - Be Ready Jerling Junior High – “Rules of the Road” Be Safe Be Respectful Be Responsible
Neil Armstrong’s-- “3 B’s” • Be Safe • Be Respectful • Be Ready Westmont High School Sentinels • Be Respectful • Be Responsible • Celebrate Success