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Implementing Positive Behavior Supports in Juvenile Corrections

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  1. Implementing Positive Behavior Supports in Juvenile Corrections C. Michael Nelson Suana Wessendorf David Houchins Megan McGlynn

  2. Overview • Rationale for application of Positive Behavior Support in juvenile corrections • Overview of Positive Behavior Support • Implementation at Iowa Juvenile Home • Issues identified through analysis of focus group data • Group discussion of issues, strategies • Description of the juvenile justice/positive behavior support initiative

  3. Why PBS in Juvenile Corrections? • Is proving to be an effective and efficient alternative to harsh, inconsistent, and ineffective disciplinary methods in public schools • Discipline provided in many juvenile justice facilities is not any better than in most public schools--often worse, because of inconsistency • Decisions about disciplinary systems in juvenile corrections tend not to be linked to data on youth behavior

  4. What is Positive Behavior Support? PBS is a broad range of systemic & individualized strategies for achieving important social & learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior.

  5. PBIS “Big Idea” Goal is to establish host environments that support adoption & sustain use of evidence-based practices (Zins & Ponti, 1990)

  6. Positive Behavior Support Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Youth Behavior

  7. Discipline is…. The actions caregivers take to increase youth success (Charles, 1980). ReactionPositive and Negative Consequences Prevention Rules, Routines, Arrangements

  8. School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems Classroom Setting Systems Non-classroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems

  9. Positive Behavior Support Systems in JJS Programs Housing Units Education Program Other Programs Facility-wide System

  10. Key word: PREVENTION • Primary • Reduce # new cases • Secondary • Reduce # current cases • Tertiary • Reduce complications, intensity, severity of current cases

  11. Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students

  12. Does this model apply to programs in the JJS? • Does the proportion of incarcerated youth who are discipline problems approximate that found in public schools?√ ~80%-- 1 or 0 discipline reports per month√ 10-15%-- 2-5 per month√ 1-5%-- multiple discipline reports

  13. Program-Wide Behavior Support System • Commitment by >80% of program staff to preventative approach to problem behavior • Preventive program-wide systems of proactive discipline • Available to all youth, & • To which >80% of youth respond predictably & successfully

  14. Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support System • Facility-wide leadership team to oversee program-wide PBS & discipline • Administrative support, leadership, & participation • Data-based decision making

  15. What data are useful for decision-making? • USE WHAT YOU HAVE • Behavior Reports (BRs) • Measure of overall environment. Data are affected by (a) youth behavior, (b) staff behavior, (c) administrative context • An under-estimate of what is really happening • Collect & analyze # BRs per day per month • Administrative segregation, detention • Other?

  16. Questions to Drive Data-Based Disciplinary Planning • How many BRs occur Per day?Per week?Per month? • Where do behavior problems occur?LocationTime of dayActivity • How are incidents distributed among youth?

  17. Focus on Program-Wide System if: • More than 35% of youth in the program receive 1 or more BR • Average number of BRs per youth is greater than 2.5

  18. Focus on Setting-Specific Systems if • More than 35% of BRs come from a particular setting (recreation area, lunchroom, classrooms, living units) • More than 15% of youth who receive a BR are referred from a particular setting or settings.

  19. Focus on Individual Student Systems • Targeted Group Interventions • If 10 or more youth have 10+ BRs • Example (daily check-in, check-out) • Intensive Individual Interventions • Youth with multiple needs • Intense, individualized support • Wrap Around • Personal Futures Planning • Functional Assessment

  20. All Staff Agree to • A consistent set of rules for youth behavior • Consistent routines, especially for problem areas • Alter physical arrangements associated with problem areas

  21. Teach and Reinforce • Rules, expectations, and routines across all settings • Reward compliance • Treat misbehavior as an error--emphasize correction over punishment • Pre-correct--teach routines to prevent problem behaviors in settings where they are likely to occur

  22. Emphasize the Positive Increase ratio of positive to negative staff to youth interactions • At least 4 to 1 • Positive event/interaction every 5 minutes • Follow correction for rule violation with positive reinforcer for rule following

  23. The Iowa Behavioral Alliance: A Coalition of Partners to Improve Behavior and Learning for Students Suana Wessendorf Iowa Department of Education

  24. Iowa Behavioral Alliance

  25. Three Primary Aims • All Iowa children and youth are healthy and socially competent. • All Iowa children and youth succeed in school, and are prepared for productive adulthood, and • All youth have the benefit of safe and supportive families, schools and communities.

  26. Cross-cutting Dimensions • Multicultural Considerations • Comprehensive Professional Development

  27. Iowa Behavioral Alliance(Initial Partners) • Drake University • (School of Education and Resource Center) • Iowa State University • (Special Education, Early Childhood, RISE, 4-H Youth Development) • Iowa Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health

  28. Iowa Behavioral Alliance(Additional Partners, in part!) • RRTC (U. of Oregon) • Parent Training Information Center • Urban Education Network • Area Education Agencies • Iowa Department of Education • Others (SAI, ISEA, IASB)

  29. Three Components of the Project • Positive Behavior Support • Mental Health for Children • Dropout Prevention

  30. PBS Outcomes • PBS implementation in 42 sites • Inclusion of families and communities in each site • Awareness of PBS on broad scale • Expansion district-wide in 8 sites (model/demonstration) • Evaluation efforts (SWIS, SET)

  31. Positive Behavior Supports & the Iowa Juvenile Home Iowa Juvenile Home Toledo, IA 52342 (641) 484-2560 Craig Rosen Principal crosen@dhs.state.ia.us A Philosophy for education and treatment

  32. Needs of Juvenile Population Determine Implementation Focus Youth at Iowa Juvenile Home: • greater need for specialized and more intensive individualized programming. • Most students in the red part of the triangle are operating under escape motivated behaviors. • 157% population turn over in 03/04—Average population was 94; Total students served was 221

  33. Data decision model used at the Iowa Juvenile Home • Primary Support—0-1 Class Removal (Green portion of triangle) • Secondary Support—2-5 Class Removals (Yellow portion of triangle) • Tertiary Support—6+ Class Removals (Red Portion of Triangle)

  34. CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT Tertiary Prevention: -Level III Services -3:1 Student to teacher ratio -Functional Behavior Assessments -Highest level of supervision and security Continuum of School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports IJH 32% Secondary Prevention: -Level II Services -5:1 Student to teacher ratio -Limited integration into general education classes -Targeted Interventions Primary Prevention: -General Education -8:1 Student to teacher ratio -School-Wide PBS -Problem Solving Process -AEA Support Services -Vocational Programs Staff, & Settings ~46% Tertiary Prevention ~ 25% Secondary Prevention Primary Prevention: -Level I Services -8:1 Student to teacher ratio -School-Wide PBS -Paraprofessional support ~29% Primary Prevention

  35. Alternative Clinical Setting for Females Created a more structured environment in the clinical department for 4-6 females. Program was implemented in March 03 This data shows a 46% reduction in restraints over a twelve-month period. Reduction of 15 hours per month for one staff to be involved in a restraint. (Most restraintsinvolve 2 or more people.)

  36. Alternative Classroom for Males Created a more structured environment for 4-6 male students. Program was implemented at the end of December 03. Data shows a 37% reduction in males being removed from class over a 3-month period. All students are doing better academically

  37. The Ecological Congruence of PBS in JJ Settings: Conceptualizations from the Field David Houchins Georgia State University

  38. Methodology • Constant comparative design

  39. Ecological Congruence Houchins & Jolivette

  40. Ecological Congruence • Issues related to… • Changing from a correctional model • Using reinforcers that might be contraband • Working with security personnel • Training personnel who work around the clock

  41. Ecological Congruence • “These concepts (PBS) don’t seem to be alien concepts to what you have been doing. A major barrier is when the state imposes a rigid correctional model as the expectation.” (administrators) • “Barrier is communicating and coordinating across staff in the cottage or between cottages and school. Night staff may still operate under a control model. It would be good if night staff could participate with our group. Kids need to work on their relationships with night staff.” (clinical staff) • “In some settings identifying reinforcers that are not contraband may be a challenge. Don’t overlook some fairly basic objects (greeting cards). Non-tangibles can also be important such as time with staff.” (administrators)

  42. Ecological Congruence Role Clarity Houchins & Jolivette

  43. Role Clarity • Issues related to… • Being ambiguous about role • Being conflicted about power • Working with the interventionist • Handling conflicting policies

  44. Role Clarity • “Issues of power. In the long-run kids are more involved. You really aren’t giving up power you are gaining.” (clinical staff) • “Some ambiguity in how we are operating.” (teachers) • “We are putting up with some things we didn’t tolerate before.” (teachers)

  45. Ecological Congruence Role Clarity Philosophical shift & agreement Houchins & Jolivette

  46. Philosophical Shift and Agreement • Issues related to… • Changing overall philosophy • Being in the middle of the change process • Making PBS “natural” • Being conflicted when the old system is quicker and easier for addressing student behavior • Incorporating other models into a PBS model

  47. Philosophical Shift and Agreement • “Moving away from an “I gotcha model.” (administrators) • “In our unit we had to change our philosophy in how we approach the children. How do we change so we don’t overly focus on the history of what has happened? How do we look at the positive qualities, not just the problems…? One of the most difficult sells here is the perception of some that we are not holding students accountable for behavior.” (clinical staff) • “As you make the shift you have people who want to work in strength based in times of crisis we revert to control.” (administrators)