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Chemistry 2100

Chemistry 2100

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Chemistry 2100

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  1. Chemistry 2100 Lecture 2

  2. Alkynes and Alkenes alkene (olefins):CnH2n alkyne (acetylenes): CnH2n-2 Ethyne Ethene Ethylene Acetylene

  3. Naming Alkenes and Alkynes • Parent name is that of the longest chain that contains the C=C or C≡C. • Number the chain from the end that gives the lower numbers to the carbons of the C=C or C≡C. • Locate the C=C or C≡C by the number of its first carbon. • Use -ene to show C=C, -yne for C≡C. • For cycloalkenes: • Number ring carbons to give carbon 1 and 2 to the C=C bond. • Because of this convention, no need to specify the number of the C=C.

  4. 2-methyl-2-pentene 3-methyl-cis-2-pentene 3-methyl-trans-2-pentene Alkene Isomerism

  5. Conjugation

  6. 2

  7. trans-retinal

  8. trans-retinal

  9. trans-retinal

  10. trans-retinal 11-cis-retinal

  11. opsin

  12. opsin

  13. opsin

  14. opsin rhodopsin

  15. rhodopsin metarhodopsin

  16. rhodopsin metarhodopsin

  17. rhodopsin metarhodopsin

  18. rhodopsin neural impulse metarhodopsin

  19. neural impulse metarhodopsin 11-cis-retinal trans-retinal

  20. neural impulse metarhodopsin 11-cis-retinal trans-retinal

  21. neural impulse metarhodopsin 11-cis-retinal trans-retinal

  22. neural impulse metarhodopsin 11-cis-retinal trans-retinal opsin

  23. neural impulse metarhodopsin 11-cis-retinal trans-retinal opsin

  24. -selinene (celery) caryophyllene (cloves) zingiberene (ginger) myrcene (bay) geraniol (rose) limonene (orange, dill) carvone (spearmint, dill) menthol (mint) Terpenes – natural polyenes

  25. squalene

  26. squalene ~25 steps cholesterol lanosterol

  27. tetra tri di mono Making Alkenes

  28. (cis or trans) Reactions of Alkenes Hydrogenation

  29. • "partially hydrogenated vegetable oil" Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil

  30. Halogenation CH2Cl2 RT ∆ / h Cl2 CH2Cl2

  31. H2SO4 minor major H2SO4 Acid Addition CH2Cl2

  32. polypropylene PVC polyacrylonitrile polyvinyl alcohol Z =CH3 polypropylene Z = Cl PVC Z = CN polyacrylonitrile Z=OH polyvinyl alcohol Polymerization

  33. Polymers & Health Bisphenol A = hard shell plastic Pthalate, plasticizer