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Chemistry 2100

Chemistry 2100

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Chemistry 2100

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  1. Chemistry 2100 Lecture 13

  2. Metabolism

  3. Stages of Catabolism • digestion: hydrolysis • degradation: nutrients acetyl CoA • TCA Cycle: acetyl CoA CO2 + NADH / FADH2 • oxidative phosphorylation: NADH / FADH2 ATP

  4. Catabolic Pathways • Two principal types of compounds participating in the common catabolic pathway are: • AMP, ADP, and ATP: agents for the storage and transfer of phosphate groups. • NAD+/NADH and FAD/FADH2: agents for the transfer of electrons in biological oxidation-reduction reactions

  5. Adenosine Triphosphate Ad

  6. O O O Ad H O O P O P O P O 2 O O O O O O Ad O P O + O P O P O + 31.4 kJ/mol O O O

  7. Coupled Reactions (and why we need them)

  8. O O 16.7 kJ/mol + R C O H + H O R' R C O R' + H O 2

  9. O O O O Ad 10.5 kJ/mol + R C O H + O P O P O P O O O O O O O O Ad R C O P O + O P O P O O O O

  10. O O Ad R C O P O + H O R' O O O Ad + R C O R' + O P O 25.1 kJ/mol O

  11. O R C O H + H O R' + ATP O R C O R' + AMP + PP + 14.6 kJ/mol

  12. NAD+/NADH • NAD+ is a two-electron oxidizing agent, and is reduced to NADH. • NADH is a two-electron reducing agent, and is oxidized to NAD+. The structures shown here are the nicotinamide portions of NAD+ and NADH. • NADH is an electron and hydrogen ion transporting molecule.

  13. FAD/FADH2 • FAD is a two-electron oxidizing agent, and is reduced to FADH2. • FADH2 is a two-electron reducing agent, and is oxidized to FAD. • Only the flavin moiety is shown in the structures below.

  14. Carbohydrate Catabolism • glycolysis: glucose pyruvate acetyl CoA • TCA Cycle: acetyl CoA CO2 + NADH / FADH2 • oxidative phosphorylation: NADH / FADH2 ATP

  15. Glycolysis

  16. H phosphofructokinase •

  17. H •

  18. H •

  19. H • • H •

  20. H • • H •

  21. H • • H •

  22. H • • H •

  23. H • • H •

  24. H O O H C C NH 2 HPO -2 H OH + 4 dehydrogenase N -2 CH O PO 2 3 AD -2 O glyceraldehyde O O PO H H 3 3-phosphate C NAD + C NH 2 + H OH • • N -2 CH O PO 2 3 AD 1,3-bisphospho glycerate NADH

  25. 1,3 bisphospho glycerate

  26. 1,3 bisphospho glycerate

  27. 1,3 bisphospho glycerate 3-phospho glycerate

  28. 1,3 bisphospho glycerate 2-phospho glycerate 3-phospho glycerate

  29. H O 2-phospho glycerate

  30. H O 2-phospho glycerate

  31. pyruvate

  32. Anaerobic Glycolysis pyruvic acid (–)-lactic acid pyruvate lactic acid