Today… Grammar Review AP Style Writing Process
Word Choice Check the spelling and meaning of your words It’s/its Affect/effect See page 117 in your textbook
We were required to write a persuasive letter to raise money for a charity. You were graded on your application of persuasive writing principles.
Shift in Point of View We were required to write a persuasive letter to raise money for a charity. We were graded on our application of persuasive writing principles. You were required to write a persuasive letter to raise money for a charity. You were graded on your application of persuasive writing principles.
Point of View First Person Emphasizes the writer Second PersonEmphasizes the reader Third Person Emphasizes the subject
She and her friends is at the fair. The books is in the drawer.
Subject-Verb Agreement In the present tense, verbs agree with their subject in number and person.
Back to our example: She and her friends is at the fair. She and her friends are at the fair. The books is in the drawer. The books are in the drawer. The book is in the drawer.
Active/Passive Voice As a rule, use active verbs to express meaning more vigorously • A surge of power was responsible for the destruction of the pumps. • A surge of power destroyed the pump. (C) The pumps were destroyed by a surge of power.
Active/Passive Voice (A) Burying nuclear waste in Antarctica violates an international treaty. (B) Burying nuclear waste in Antarctica would be a violation of an international treaty.
Active/Passive Voice • The debris was removed from the construction site. • The contractor removed the debris from the construction site.
Other Grammar Issues to Review Irregular Verbs Adjectives/Adverbs Using Modifiers Sentence Fragments and Run-On Sentences See Handout
Abbreviations & Acronyms Abbreviate Gov., Lt. Gov., the Rev., Sen., Rep., Dr., Mr., Mrs., and Ms. before a person’s name Use the context of the sentence as a guide for abbreviations In running text, use AP abbreviations for states not postal abbreviations Avoid alphabet soup
Addresses Use figures in addresses Ex: 605 Woodside Drive Abbreviate Ave., Blvd,. & St., and direction cues when used with a numbered address Ex: 101 N. Grant St. If the street is a number 1-9 spell out, 10th or higher use figures Ex: 101 First St./101 S. 10th St.
Ages Always use figures for ages The girl, 9, has a brother, 13. The student is 21 years old. When an age is an adjective or substitute for a noun, then it should be hyphenated A 21-year-old student… Do not use apostrophes when describing an age range He is in his 30s.
Books, Periodicals, Compositions Use quotation marks: books, songs, movies, TV shows, computer games, etc. “Breaking Bad”, “Suit and Tie”, “Candy Crush” Do not use quotation marks: magazine, newspapers, the Bible, or books that are catalogue reference materials The Washington Post, the Bible No italics
Dates, Months, Years, Days of Week Capitalize days of week but do not abbreviate Use figures with dates Do not use st, nd, rd, or thwith dates (i.e. Sept. 1) Use comma to set off a year only Ex: Aug. 9/Aug. 9, 2013 Decades/centuries use “s” no apostrophe 1800s Use an apostrophe before decade when numbers are left out The ‘80s
Names First mention – use first and last names Second mention – use only last name Do not use courtesy titles unless they are part of direct quotation or are needed to differentiate between people
Numbers Never begin a sentence with a number, unless it is a year. Ex: Two hundred seniors attended convocation. Ex: 1776 was an important year. Spell out numbers below 10 and use figures for 10 and above Ex: the woman had four children and 11 grandchildren.
Punctuation Single space after a period. Do not use a comma before a conjunction in a simple series. Ex: I like apples, oranges and grapes. Commas and periods go inside punctuation marks. Ex: “I did nothing wrong,” he said. Ex: She said, “Let’s go to the softball game.”
Cities and States Spell out a state when it stands alone Ex: He is from Mississippi. Use the AP state abbreviation when city and state are used. Ex: She is from Tuscaloosa, Ala. Also see AP Style for stand-alone cities.
Time Use figures for time, but spell out noon and midnight Ex: 1 p.m.; 3:30 p.m.
Titles Capitalize formal titles when they appear before a person’s name but lowercase if they are informal or appear without a name Ex: President Obama Ex: Robert Bentley, a governor from Alabama Ex: deputy secretary of homeland security
Step 1: Preliminary Questions What do you want the audience to do with the message? Who is the audience? What are the audience’s needs, concerns, and interests? What is our message? Are we trying to inform or persuade? What communication channel(s) will be more effective? Who is our most believable spokesperson?
Step 2: Outline the Message Introduction: roadmap to the document • Most important point • Supporting fact one • Supporting fact two • Supporting fact three (2) Second important point • Supporting fact one • Supporting fact two • Supporting fact three Conclusion: Summarize and tell them what to do
Step 3: Write the Message The outline should guide the writing process Get words on paper – you can write and revise later
Writing Mechanics Word Choice Be cognizant of your word choiceWrite to your audience Use active voice and present tense
Writing Mechanics Sentences Keep sentences clear and concise Avoid long, compound sentences Keep sentences 15-17 words
Writing Mechanics Paragraphs Keep paragraphs short One paragraph = one main idea All sentences support that main idea 6-8 typeset lines; lead paragraphs are even shorter
Editing Your Writing This is important. Very important.
Editing Your Writing Rule Number 1: Pay attention to the details Rule Number 2: Be prepared to go through several revisions