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Molecular Biology

Molecular Biology

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Molecular Biology

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  1. 1. The difference between plant and animal cells is that animal cells contain a cell wall and chloroplasts. 2. The main source of energy for our bodies is protein. 3. Fats can be “saturated” or “unsaturated”. Saturated fats are more beneficial to our bodies. 4. Cells in our body convert energy (glucose) to energy (ATP) through the process of photosynthesis. 5. Almost all energy comes originally from sunlight.

  2. Molecular Biology

  3. What is molecular biology? -Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. The field overlaps with other areas of biology, particularly genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell.

  4. Is this an animal or plant cell? Explain. “Cell Structure & Function” 10:36

  5. Plant Cell: How do plant and animal cells differ?

  6. Organelles have specific functions. • Lysosome: contains enzymes that break down nutrients, wastes, bacteria and worn out cell parts • Ribosome: take information from DNA and use it to make proteins • Vacuole: a membrane-bound sac that plays roles in intracellular digestion and the storage and release of cellular waste products • Nucleus: a large, oval structure that directs all of the cell’s activities; houses genetic material • Mitochondria: produce most of the energy/ATP the cell needs to carry out its functions; where respiration occurs • Golgi Body (apparatus): receives and packages products, including proteins, for use in the cell • Endoplasmic Reticulum: where chemical reactions take place; a system whose functions include synthesis and transport of lipids and, in regions where ribosomes are attached, of proteins • Cell Membrane: forms the outside boundary that separates the cell from its environment; controls what enters and leaves the cell • Cytoplasm: the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus • Cell Wall: plant; rigid structure that gives the cell shape - Gizmo: “Cell Structure” - Matching activity

  7. Plants and Food Production • The three major functions that are basic to plant growth and development are: • Photosynthesis – The process of capturing light energy and converting it to sugar energy, in the presence of chlorophyll using carbon dioxide and water. (releasing O2 and H2O) • Respiration – The process of metabolizing (burning) sugars to yield energy for growth, reproduction, and other life processes. (releasing H2O and CO2) • Transpiration – The loss of water vapor through the stomata of leaves. (O2) (CO2) (H2O) “Respiration & Excretion” 9:16

  8. In photosynthesis… - carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil react with the sun’s energy to form sugars, starches, proteins, and carbohydrates and release oxygen as a byproduct.  - the plant uses water and nutrients from the soil, and carbon dioxide from the air with the sun’s energy.  Oxygen is released as a byproduct. - Photosynthesis literally means to put together with light.  It occurs only in the chloroplasts, tiny sub cellular structures contained in the cells of leaves and green stems.  The chemical equation for photosynthesis is: 6CO2 + 6H2O+ light energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2 The word equation for photosynthesis is: carbon dioxide + water + light energy = glucose + oxygen

  9. Respiration in Plants In respiration, plants (and animals) convert the sugars back into energy for growth and other life processes (metabolic processes).  A simple chemical equation for respiration is given below. Notice that the equation for respiration is the opposite of that for photosynthesis. The word equation for aerobic respiration is: - glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy The chemical equation is: - C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + 2900 kj Chemically speaking, the process is similar to the oxidation that occurs as wood is burned, producing heat.  When compounds combine with oxygen, the process is often referred to as “burning”, for example, athlete’s “burn” energy (sugars) as they exercise.  The harder they exercise, the more sugars they burn so the more oxygen they need.  That is why at full speed, they are breathing very fast.  Athletes take in oxygen through their lungs.  At night, plants take in a small amount of oxygen through the stomata in their leaves and through their roots.

  10. Do plants take in oxygen (O2)? • All plants and animals on earth engage in a process called respiration. • One of the byproducts of respiration is carbon dioxide. In other words, respiration is the opposite of photosynthesis. Respiration • Respiration doesn’t depend on light; it goes on 24 hours a day, so that plants and animals have enough energy to perform the basic functions that keep them alive. • However, during the day, the amount of oxygen plants release as part of photosynthesis makes the amount of oxygen they consume for respiration at night seem negligible. Nighttime Battle? • At night, when photosynthesis can’t take place, plants continue to consume oxygen but they don’t release any back into the atmosphere. • The amount of oxygen the plants use at night is trivial.

  11. Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration What are the waste products of photosynthesis? (dissolved O2 demo.) What are the waste products of respiration? (Yeast Respiration lab)

  12. Transpiration in Plants • Water in the roots is pulled through the plant by transpiration (loss of water vapor through the stomata of the leaves).  • Transpiration uses about 90% of the water that enters the plant.  The other 10% is an ingredient in photosynthesis and cell growth. The capillary action of water molecules keep water moving up the roots and through the plant.

  13. Transpiration After securing the bag on the plant, water is captured as it travels out the leaves of the plant.. • What is the process that leads to transpiration? • 2. What are the waste products of photosynthesis?

  14. What is “chemical energy”? • Consider the ability of your body to do work. • The glucose (blood sugar) in your body is said to have "chemical energy" because the glucose releases energy when chemically reacting (combusting) with oxygen.

  15. Food provides molecules that serve as fuel and building material for all organisms. • Plants use the energy in light to make sugars out of carbon dioxide and water through a process called photosynthesis. • This process transforms light energy from the sun into stored chemical energy. Chemical energy is transferred from one organism in an ecosystem to another as they interact with each other for food. • Minerals and other nutrients from soil are not food (They don’t provide energy.), but are needed for plants to make complex molecules from the sugar they make.

  16. How do plants take in carbon dioxide (CO2)?(assessment probe - stomata) Provide your feedback of the assessment probe.

  17. Matter is transferred among organisms. • Molecules from food react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide (CO2) and water in a process called cellular respiration. • Through the process of cellular respiration, cells convert energy (glucose) to a usable form of energy (ATP). • Energy stored in ATP enables cells to grow, develop, repair organisms, locomotion and transportation of molecules across the cell membrane. • Some plants (like legumes - i.e. peas) form a relationship with microorganisms. This happens in their roots, and nodules are formed. These microbes can take nitrogen from the air (which is about 80% nitrogen) and turn it into ammonia, which is absorbed by the plant’s root. • Animals get nitrogen by eating other plants or animals, which contain protein (which is made of nitrogen and other things). Nitrogen is a component in both protein and chlorophyll.

  18. Cell Division & Reproduction With division of the nucleus, body cells go through mitosis and reproductive cells go through meiosis.

  19. Fat Comparison Chart: The following table shows, in grams, how much saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and trans fats are contained in 1 tablespoon of various commonly used oils and fats. Trans fat is double trouble for your heart health: Trans fat raises your "bad" (LDL) cholesterol and lowers your "good" (HDL) cholesterol. Find out more about trans fat and how to avoid it. By Mayo Clinic staff When it comes to fat, trans fat is considered by some doctors to be the worst type of fat. Unlike other fats, trans fat — also called trans-fatty acids — both raises your "bad" (LDL) cholesterol and lowers your "good" (HDL) cholesterol. A high LDL cholesterol level in combination with a low HDL cholesterol level increases your risk of heart disease, the leading killer of men and women. Here's some information about trans fat and how to avoid it. 1. What is trans fat?: Trans fat is made by adding hydrogen to vegetable oil through a process called hydrogenation, which makes the oil less likely to spoil. Using trans fats in the manufacturing of foods helps foods stay fresh longer, have a longer shelf life and have a less greasy feel. Scientists aren't sure exactly why, but the addition of hydrogen to oil increases your cholesterol more than do other types of fats. It's thought that adding hydrogen to oil makes the oil more difficult to digest, and your body recognizes trans fats as saturated fats. 2. Trans fat in your food: Commercial baked goods — such as crackers, cookies and cakes — and many fried foods, such as doughnuts and french fries — may contain trans fats. Shortenings and some margarine can be high in trans fat. Trans fat used to be more common, but in recent years food manufacturers have used it less because of concerns over the health effects of trans fat. Food manufacturers in the United States and many other countries list the trans fat content on nutrition labels. However, you should be aware of what nutritional labels really mean when it comes to trans fat. For example, in the United States if a food has less than 0.5 grams of trans fat per serving, the food label can read 0 grams trans fat. Though that's a small amount of trans fat, if you eat multiple servings of foods with less than 0.5 grams of trans fat, you could exceed recommended limits. 3. Reading food labels: How do you know whether food contains trans fat? Look for the words "partially hydrogenated" vegetable oil. That's another term for trans fat. It sounds counterintuitive, but "fully" or "completely" hydrogenated oil doesn't contain trans fat. Unlike partially hydrogenated oil, the process used to make fully or completely hydrogenated oil doesn't result in trans-fatty acids. However, if the label says just "hydrogenated" vegetable oil, it could mean the oil contains some trans fat. Although small amounts of trans fat occur naturally in some meat and dairy products, it's the trans fats in processed foods that seem to be more harmful I N T E R P H A S E C Y T O K I N E S I S

  20. How do cells use food? 1. Is this a plant or animal cell? 2. How do you know? 3. What nutrients are needed by various organelles? “Food and Digestion” 9:59

  21. Molecular Biology and Food… how o they relate? • The composition of various substances relate to their ability to provide energy and building materials for growth and repair of organisms. • Food provides molecules that serve as fuel and building material for all organisms. Day #1: Begin “Food Analysis Activity” using food lines  (see food nutrition label & chart activity) Day #2: Food Tasting Activity Day #3: Analyze chart, Calculate Metabolism Time Homework: Complete : Student Food Log for 1 week (food plate activity) See “Forms of Energy” Coach 7 “Cell Processes & Energy” 8:22

  22. Understanding Nutrient Labels 1. Serving Size • Serving Size Per Container • Calories • Calories from Fat • Saturated Fat • *Unsaturated Fat • Sodium • Carbohydrates • Protein • HW: Student 10 Item Food Assessment *Trans fat is a specific type of unsaturated fat formed when liquid fats are made into solid in a process known as hydrogenation. Hydrogenation solidifies liquid oils and increases the shelf life and the flavor stability of oils and foods that contain them. Small amounts of trans fats are found naturally in animal based foods. Trans fats are considered unhealthy. * Not all unsaturated fats are “trans fats”.

  23. What is “food”? • material or molecules that provide living things with the nutrients they need for energy and growth And Carbohydrates (simple & complex carbs) Foods with natural sugars (carbs) tend to be the healthiest for you.

  24. Food provides molecules that serve as fuel and building material. (see compound PowerPoint) • What is a molecule?The smallest particle of a substance that retains the chemical and physical properties of the substance and is composed of two or more atoms; a group of like or different atoms held together by chemical forces. The substance (compound) here is water. It is made up of oxygen (1 atom) and hydrogen (2 atoms). H2O (chemical formula for 1 molecule of water) + - • Water is a polar molecule because • it has electrically/oppositely charged areas. • Water is not considered “food” because • it does not provide the body with energy. +

  25. What “biological compounds do our cells need? The four major biological compounds are: • Proteins - (key for building body tissues; aim for 10% to 35% of calories) • Nucleic Acids - (RNA and DNA) • Carbohydrates - (fuels our brain and muscles; energy source - aim for 45% to 65% of calories) • Lipids - (contributes essential fatty acids and promotes absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A,D,E, and K; energy source – aim for 20% to 35% of calories – mostly unsaturated) • Only proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are considered “food” because they are the only ones in which the body/cells get energy. •“Biological Molecules: You are what you eat.” 14:09

  26. What is “protein”? • One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. • Proteins are essential components of the muscle, skin, and bones. • aim for 10% to 35% of calories • Proteins and carbohydrates each provide 4 calories of energy per gram, whereas fats provide 9 calories per gram.

  27. Sources of Protein • In your notebook, make a list of the various sources of protein.

  28. Top 10 Plants High in Protein #1 asparagus #2 pumpkin seeds #3 cauliflower #4 peanuts #5 oats #6 beans #7 almonds #8 spinach #9 broccoli #10 quinoa

  29. See “Carbohydrates in Foods Lists” Sources of Carbohydrates • In your notebook, make a list of the various sources of carbohydrates.

  30. Simple vs Complex Carbs Carbohydrates and fats are the main source of energy for your body. Carbs are made up of sugars, which break down to provide either quick energy or slow-burning, sustained energy over a period of several hours. "Simple" carbs are quick energy sources, while "complex" carbs provide longer-lasting energy. In addition to providing physical energy, carbohydrates also effectively fuel the brain.

  31. What are lipids/fats? • a biological compound that is not soluble (dissolvable) in water, e.g. a fat.  • Fats are classified as “saturated ” or “unsaturated . • Unsaturated fats are more beneficial to our body and are liquid at room temperature. • Saturated fats are less beneficial to our bodies and are solid at room temperature. • “Trans Fats” are a type of unsaturated fat that is not beneficial to our bodies. • Lipids/fats have more energy; however, unsaturated fats are healthy.

  32. The Real Story on Fats! 

  33. Are fats good or bad for you? What do you think? Unsaturated Fats VS Saturated Fats

  34. Unsaturated FatsIn your notebook, make a list of foods that contain unsaturated fats.

  35. Cont. Unsaturated Fats

  36. See “Fat Comparison Chart” Saturated FatsIn your notebook, make a list of foods that contain saturated fats. (solid at room temperature)

  37. Based on this information, what group should most of our food come from? b (Food & Digestion Program 9:59)

  38. Your Eating Plate… How do you rate?  What foods are good sources of carbohydrates? fats/lipids? Student 1 Week Food Log Analysis

  39. Molecules of Saturated and Unsaturated Fat Both saturated and unsaturated fats are made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms.

  40. Effects of Long-term Consumption of Saturated Fats - Eating fatty foods appears to take an almost immediate toll on both short-term memory and exercise performance. - Studies have suggested that long-term consumptionof a high-fat diet is associated with weight gain, heart disease and declines in cognitive (mental) function. • New research shows how indulging in • fatty foods over the course of a few • days can affect the brain and body long before the extra pounds show up.

  41. Atherosclerosis is a type of hardening of the arteries in which lipids, particularly cholesterol, build up on the side arterial walls. Riskfactors cigarette smoking, a high fat/high cholesterol diet, and hypertension.

  42. Atherosclerosis: hardening of the arteries actual images

  43. Progression of Cholesterol Accumulation Food Analysis Activity … The Big Picture 

  44. Energy Flow & Recycling of Matter • The atoms that make up organisms in an ecosystem are cycled repeatedly • between the living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) parts of the ecosystem. • The total amount of matter remains constant, even though its form and location • change. (Law of Conservation of Matter: it cannot be created or destroyed, it only • changes form)

  45. Ecosystem Recycling Natures Way of “Recycling”

  46. (producers)

  47. - Energy can change from one form to another in living things. - Animals get energy from oxidizing their food, releasing some of its energy as heat.- Plants use the energy from light to make sugars (food) from carbon dioxide and water. This transforms light energy from the sun into stored chemical energy.- Almost all food energy comes originally from sunlight.

  48. In plant and animals, molecules from food: (1) react with oxygen to provide energy that is needed to carry out life functions; (2) build and become incorporated into the body structure or (3) are stored for later use.

  49. Food is the “fuel” for our bodies. How do animals convert food to energy? • Mitochondria are the converters; they convert the fuel into useable energy. • When food is digested, or broken down into its smallest molecules and nutrients, and air is taken in, the smallest molecules and nutrients cross into the bloodstream. These molecules and nutrients include things such as glucose (a sugar molecule derived from carbohydrates) and oxygen. • You will consume more fuel than is necessary to make the machine called your body function. The excess gets stored for later as fat. • Just as fire burns oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide and water, mitochondria act like furnaces when they convert glucose into adenosine triphosphate (ATP): They “burn” (use) oxygen and give off carbon dioxide and water in a process called respiration. Because the process uses oxygen, it is said to be aerobic (as in aerobic exercise). • This chemical process of respiration occurs in every cell, so it is called aerobic cellular respiration.