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The Enlightenment & France

The Enlightenment & France

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The Enlightenment & France

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Presentation Transcript

  1. The Enlightenment & France • Progress • Deism • Tolerance

  2. Voltaire (1694-1778) • A Treatise on Tolerance • Religion cause of most inhumane crimes against humanity • People allowed to practice any religion; no government imposition on state • Secular values take precedence over religious values

  3. Votaire • Candide • Skeptical of humans endlessly improving themselves & their environment • “the best of all possible worlds” • Solution: productive work that benefits those around you

  4. Denis Diderot (1713-1784) • Encyclopedie • Sum total of knowledge and entire spirit of Enlightenment movement • Supremacy of new science • Denounced superstition • Promoted merits of human freedom • Secularize learning

  5. Marquis de Montesquieu (1688-1755) • Spirit of Laws • Critic of monarchy • Recognition of geographical influences on political systems • Advocacy of checks & balances • Best form of government: English constitution

  6. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) • Proponent of romantic rationalism • Distrusted reason and science • Favored human impulse & intuition • Trusted emotions rather than thought • Rebel against all established institutions • The Social Contract

  7. Conclusion