EARTHQUAKES! Video: Earthquakes 101

# EARTHQUAKES! Video: Earthquakes 101

## EARTHQUAKES! Video: Earthquakes 101

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##### Presentation Transcript

1. EARTHQUAKES!Video: Earthquakes 101 Chapter 12

2. Section 1 • Earthquakes are caused by a sudden release of energy when rocks move along a fault. • Elastic rebound is thought to cause the rocks to move.

3. Anatomy of an Earthquake • Focus-location of first motion in Earth • Epicenter-spot on surface above the focus The focus can be shallow or deep Shallow foci cause the most damage

4. Seismic Waves Body Waves: • Travel through the Earth • Made up of: -P waves: primary, fastest -S waves: secondary, second fastest, travel through solids only

5. Earthquake Waves & Earth’s Interior

6. Seismic Waves and the Earth’s Interior • The speed and direction of seismic waves gives us information about the Earth’s structure • Waves travel at different speeds through different materials • Shadow Zones-areas where no body waves are detected

7. Comparing Seismic Waves

8. Seismic Waves (cont) Surface Waves • Slowest moving waves • May cause the greatest damage • 2 Types: -Rayleigh -Love

9. Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics • Most earthquakes occur at plate boundaries (converging and diverging) where the stress is the greatest

10. How Seismographs or Seismometers Work, TB pg. 217 -measures ground motion and can be used to determine the distance seismic waves travel https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gbd1FcuLJLQ http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM

11. How do scientists calculate how far a location is from the epicenter of an earthquake? Scientists calculate the difference between arrival times of the P waves and S waves (lag time) The further away an earthquake is, the greater the time between the arrival of the P waves and the S waves They use the lag time to calculate a distance to the epicenter

12. Typical Seismogram-a graphical illustration of EQ waves http://isu.indstate.edu/jspeer/Earth&Sky/EarthCh11.ppt

13. Locating Earthquakes http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM

14. Locating Earthquakes http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM

15. Locating Earthquakes http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM

16. Section 2 • Seismographs record vibrations in the ground • Magnitude: the strength of an earthquake, Richter scale or moment magnitude (more accurate) • Intensity (amount of damage)-modified Mercalli scale-from I-XII, oldest measurement scale

17. How are Earthquakes Measured? Richter Scale

18. How are Earthquakes Measured? Mercalli Intensity Scale Click Link for Interactive Demo http://elearning.niu.edu/simulations/images/S_portfolio/Mercalli/Mercalli_Scale.swf

19. Predicting Earthquakes-video clip: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gFB-qpiKccs • No reliable way to predict earthquakes: scientist use the following information • Scientists are trying to detect changes that occur before an earthquake • Seismic gaps are areas of low earthquake activity, but have a history of strong activity-might be spot for future earthquake • Foreshocks-small earthquakes that precede a large earthquake

20. Soil Type Type of soil can affect how a building responds to seismic waves. NEHRP has defined six different soil and rock types based on their shear-wave velocity, in order to determine amplification effects: Type A, hard rock (igneous rock). Type B, rock (volcanic rock). Type C, very dense soil and soft rock (sandstone). Type D, stiff soil (mud). Type E, soft soil (artificial fill). *Type A having the least amplification and Type E the most.

21. Section 3Video: Tsunamis 101 • Tsunamis can form when the epicenter is on the ocean floor • Damage to structures depends on how they are built and what type of ground they sit on