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Southwest Asia & North Africa

Southwest Asia & North Africa. 5 Quick Words…. Come up with 5 words that come to mind when you think of this region. People Places Things Events. Afghanistan Algeria Bahrain Cyprus Egypt Iran Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon. Libya Morocco Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria

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Southwest Asia & North Africa

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  1. Southwest Asia & North Africa

  2. 5 Quick Words… • Come up with 5 words that come to mind when you think of this region. • People • Places • Things • Events

  3. Afghanistan Algeria Bahrain Cyprus Egypt Iran Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Morocco Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria Tunisia Turkey United Arab Emirates Yemen List of Countries….

  4. Peninsulas • Arabian Peninsula • Bordered by: • Red Sea • Persian Gulf • Arabian Sea • Gulf of Aden • Sinai Peninsula • Bordered by: • Red Sea • Anatolian Peninsula • Bordered by: • Black Sea • Aegean Sea • Mediterranean Sea

  5. Location… • This region is sometimes called the “crossroads” of the world because of its critical location between several continents

  6. Dead Sea…. • Landlocked saltwater lake • Saltiest body of water • 9 times as salty as the ocean

  7. Mountains…. • Taurus • Mount Ararat • Elburz • Zagros • Hindu Kush • Atlas • Ahaggar

  8. Rivers…. • Nile • World’s longest river • Tigris • Euphrates • Makes up Mesopotamia or “Fertile Crescent” • Jordan • Flows into Dead Sea

  9. Deserts…. • Cover about 50% of this region • Sahara • World’s largest desert • Rubal Khali • Means empty quarter • Found on the Arabian Peninsula • This desert covers ¼ of total land are of Arabian Peninsula

  10. Natural Resources…. • Most important resources • Natural gas • Petroleum (oil) • 60 % of the world’s reserves are found here • Before World War II, this region produced less than 5% of the world’s oil • Today, it is the top region for oil production

  11. Population…. • Crossroads for Africa, Asia and Europe • Ethnic diversity – the difference in people based on origins, language, customs, or beliefs • Arabs • Majority of people in this region • Most Arabs follow Islam • Islam is the religion • Muslim is a person who follows Islam • Speak Arabic language

  12. Population cont…. • Israelis • Live in Israel • Most are Jewish (follow Judaism) • Settled in the region believing that God had given them land for a permanent home • Continuing conflict between Israelis and Arabs • Turks • Live in Turkey • Practice Islam • Iranians • Live in Iran • Speak Farsi • Practice a form of Islam called Shiism • Afghanis • Many ethnic groups established from invasions and migrations  • Practice Islam • Kurds • Primarily live in Turkey and Iraq • Muslim but not Arab

  13. Population Densities & Growth…. • 350 million • Growing quickly • Water and population • People live near water • Desert areas are unpopulated • Except for cities and oil fields • Urbanization • The region used to be more rural than urban • Since World War II, most of the major oil and gas producing countries have become more urbanized • Rural villagers moved to cities to search for a better life • The cities can’t handle the population shift yet • Shortage of housing and food

  14. History…. • Early Civilizations • Mesopotamia • Sumerian Civilization developed in Mesopotamia • Mesopotamia is located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers called the “Fertile Crescent” • Egypt • Developed along the Nile River • Phoenician Civilization • Coast of the Mediterranean Sea in Israel and Lebanon • Persian Empire • Between the Nile River and Aegean Sea • 3 of the world’s major religions began in southwest Asia

  15. Judaism…. • Oldest of the three religions • The Hebrews established the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah • Made Jerusalem their capital and religious center • People who followed Judaism are called Jews • Believe in monotheism- the belief in one God • Holy book- Torah or Hebrew Bible

  16. Christianity…. • Based on the teachings of Jesus • The Jews and non-Jews who followed the teachings of Jesus became known as Christians • Holy book- Bible • Christians added books to the Hebrew Bible called the New Testament

  17. Islam…. • Majority of people in this region follow Islam • Islam is the religion • Muslim is a person who follows Islam • Sunni & Shia • Sunnis choose own leaders; Shia only allow descendants of Muhammad to lead • Began around 600 AD • Newest of the three religions • Muslims believe Muhammad was the prophet- God’s messenger • Worship “Allah”- Arabic word for God • Holy book- Quran • Worship in mosques – temples • Mecca – holiest city

  18. 5 Pillars of Islam… • The Creed - "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the prophet of Allah" • Prayer - Prayer is done five times a day, said facing the direction of Mecca, and a weekly prayer on Friday.  Daily prayers are said while rising, at noon, mid-afternoon, after sunset and before retiring to bed.  The weekly prayer is usually offered at mid-day in public worship in a mosque. • Fasting - during the ninth month of the Muslim year, Ramadan.  A Muslim must not take any food or drink from dawn until sunset.  At night, this time is a great feast/festival.  (There are exceptions - old people, sick, young children) • The Hajj - a pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca.  Every Muslim is expected to do this at least once in their lifetime - unless illness or poverty make this impossible. Then they go to the great mosque to kiss the Black Stone in the eastern corner of the Ka'aba.  They make seven trips around the Ka'aba (the first three running, the rest walking). On the ninth day of the hajj, the Muslims travel 12 miles to Mt. Arafat where continuous prayer is offered from noon to sunset. • Almsgiving - Muhammad believed that his followers should give to God and to the poor.  Giving is based on income: a Muslim is expected to give about 2 1/2% of his yearly income.

  19. Cultures & Lifestyles…. • Religion • Religion influences the language, arts, government and lifestyles of the people • Very important in this region • The majority of the people follow Islam • Even though Christianity and Judaism began in this region, only a small percentage of the population follow Judaism or Christianity • Most Jews live in Israel • Cyprus and Lebanon have large Christian populations

  20. Cultures & Lifestyles…. • Languages • The major language spoken is Arabic • Hebrew is official language of Israel

  21. Meeting Food Needs…. • Because a lot of the land is desert, producing enough food is always an issue • Agriculture • Only a small portion of land is good for crops or grazing • Yet a large percentage of people work in agriculture (especially in poorer countries)

  22. Meeting Food Needs…. • Livestock • Cattle and sheep are another source of food • Fishing • Along the seas, fishing is done

  23. Industrial Growth…. • Most important natural resource is petroleum (oil) • Oil has brought wealth to many countries in this region • Some countries have developed industries that use petrochemicals- products derived from petroleum or natural gas to make fertilizers, medicines, plastics or paints

  24. Most oil is exported in crude form to industrialized countries to refine • Less than 5% of the oil produced is refined in Southwest Asia and North Africa • Natural gas has helped to advance the region by: • Powering various industries • Promoting economic growth • Provided jobs • Improved standard of living

  25. OPEC…. • OPEC stands for Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries • Began in 1960 • OPEC is considered a cartel - a group of producers who get together to set prices and determine production • OPEC’s ability to control the price of oil is not as great as it used to be • But OPEC still has considerable impact on the price of oil by controlling the supply of oil • OPEC countries produce 40% of the world’s oil and have 2/3 of the world’s oil reserves

  26. The purpose of OPEC is to: • Give these countries greater control over the price and production of oil • Determine the best way to protect the interests of the member countries • Design ways to make sure oil prices remain stable • Give a steady income to the member countries from oil • OPEC’s official language is English • Although most of the member countries speak Arabic http://www.opec.org/home/

  27. 11 Member Countries…. • Algeria • Indonesia • Iran • Iraq • Kuwait • Libya • Nigeria • Qatar • Saudi Arabia • United Arab Emirates • Venezuela

  28. Service Industries…. • Service industries - business that provides a service instead of making goods (examples – banking, insurance, tourism) • These industries are important to the economies too • Example: • In Bahrain, banking, real estate, and insurance industries provide more than 60% of the GDP • Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – the value of all goods and services created in a country in a year

  29. Tourism • Millions of tourists travel to see the ancient historical places (pyramids, Holy Lands, Mecca etc) • The violence in this region has hurt the tourism industry

  30. Environment…. • 1.2 billion people worldwide do not have clean water to drink • 2/3 of people must find water outside of their homes • In the U.S. people use approximately 300 billions of water everyday • Since a lot of North Africa and SW Asia are deserts, providing enough freshwater for drinking and irrigation is difficult

  31. They get water from rivers, oases, and wells • Water comes from aquifers – underground layers of porous rocks, gravel, or sand that contain water

  32. Need for Water…. • Major rivers • Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates provide water for some countries • Jordan River provides water for Israel • “Great Human-Made River” • Found in Libya • Multibillion dollar pipeline to carry water from two large aquifers beneath the Sahara Desert to farm areas • The pipeline has a 13 foot diameter • Scientists worry the man made river may: • Drain aquifers • Draw in saltwater from the Mediterranean Sea

  33. Desalination…. • Desalination – the removal of salt from seawater • Used during World War II to provide fresh drinking water • United States’ naval ships had simple desalination units that boiled salt out of the seawater • Today, desalination plants around the world produce about 3.4 billion gallons a freshwater a day • First, used in Israel in this region • Desalination is very expensive • It has moved beyond just distillation - the boiling and condensing of water • The price has come down but it is still too expensive for many countries • Some of the oil rich countries can afford to use these plants

  34. Aswan High Dam…. • In the 1950s, President Nasser of Egypt wanted to build a huge dam on the Nile River at Aswan • The purpose of the dam was to: • Control the Nile’s floods • Improve irrigation • Supply electricity • Create the world’s largest artificial lake for the fishing industry • The dam provided 50% of electrical power and opened 3 million acres to irrigation

  35. Aswan High Dam… • But, the dam had negative effects on the environment: • Before the dam was built, the Nile flooded along the river banks • Now, the soil gets trapped on one side of the dam • Farmers have to use expensive fertilizers on their land • The dam also prevents the annual (yearly) floods from washing away salt from the soil • Increases in diseases and deaths caused by parasites in the Nile River (used to be washed away into the Mediterranean Sea)

  36. Persian Gulf War…. • Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990 • United Nations demanded Iraq withdraw from Kuwait • Iraq refused • An international effort, led by the U.S., attacked the Iraqi soldiers

  37. Persian Gulf War…. • Before the Iraqis withdrew, they set fire to a large number of Kuwait’s oil wells • Huge black clouds of smoke polluted the area • Iraqi troops dumped 250 million gallons of oil into the Persian Gulf • Oil spilled for 350 miles in the Gulf

  38. Terrorist organizations: al Qaeda, Taliban Modern vs. traditional values Political instability Gap between rich and poor Underdeveloped countries Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Refugees Violence Depletion of resources Current Issues….

  39. ADD THIS INFO IN!!!! • Arab / Israeli Wars  Who wins and who does the US support? • Arab Response  Oil Embargo  Formation of OPEC • Iran - 1950s - 1970s  The US supports the "Shah" of Iran • 1978  People protest against the Shah / he leaves the country and takes $$$$$ • The Shah comes to the US  "they" want him back • Ayatollah Khomeini takes over in Iran • Iran "students" take the US Embassy 11/4/1979 and all 50 Americans in it as hostage for 444 days • Also while Carter is President  the Camp David Accords • M. Begin / Israel and A. Sadat / Egypt sign an agreement to stop fighting  many were upset on both sides. • 1979  Soviet Union invades Afghanistan • US Response by President Carter • Grain Embargo & Boycott the 1980 Olympics (the Soviets boycott the 1984 Olympics in LA) • In 1980  Reagan defeats Carter for the Presidency / Iran releases the US hostages / RR lifts the Grain Embargo

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