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SIFT PowerPoint Presentation

SIFT

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SIFT

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  1. SIFT • Guest Lecture by Jiwon Kim • http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/jwkim/

  2. SIFT Features andIts Applications

  3. Autostitch Demo

  4. Autostitch • Fully automatic panorama generation • Input: set of images • Output: panorama(s) • Uses SIFT (Scale-Invariant Feature Transform) to find/align images

  5. 1. Solve for homography

  6. 1. Solve for homography

  7. 1. Solve for homography

  8. 2. Find connected sets of images

  9. 2. Find connected sets of images

  10. 2. Find connected sets of images

  11. 3. Solve for camera parameters • New images initialised with rotation, focal length of best matching image

  12. 3. Solve for camera parameters • New images initialised with rotation, focal length of best matching image

  13. 4. Blending the panorama • Burt & Adelson 1983 • Blend frequency bands over range l

  14. 2-band Blending Low frequency (l > 2 pixels) High frequency (l < 2 pixels)

  15. Linear Blending

  16. 2-band Blending

  17. So, what is SIFT? • Scale-Invariant Feature Transform • David Lowe at UBC • Scale/rotation invariant • Currently best known feature descriptor • Many real-world applications • Object recognition • Panorama stitching • Robot localization • Video indexing • …

  18. Example: object recognition

  19. SIFT properties • Locality: features are local, so robust to occlusion and clutter • Distinctiveness: individual features can be matched to a large database of objects • Quantity: many features can be generated for even small objects • Efficiency: close to real-time performance

  20. SIFT algorithm overview • Feature detection • Detect points that can be repeatably selected under location/scale change • Feature description • Assign orientation to detected feature points • Construct a descriptor for image patch around each feature point • Feature matching

  21. 1. Feature detection • Detect points stable under location/scale change • Build continuous space (x, y, scale) • Approximated by multi-scale Difference-of-Gaussian pyramid • Select maxima/minima in (x, y, scale)

  22. 1. Feature detection

  23. 1. Feature detection • Localize extrema by fitting a quadratic • Sub-pixel/sub-scale interpolation using Taylor expansion • Take derivative and set to zero

  24. 1. Feature detection • Discard low-contrast/edge points • Low contrast: discard keypoints with < threshold • Edge points: high contrast in one direction, low in the other  compute principal curvatures from eigenvalues of 2x2 Hessian matrix, and limit ratio

  25. 1. Feature detection • Example • (a) 233x189 image • (b) 832 DOG extrema • (c) 729 left after peak • value threshold • (d) 536 left after testing • ratio of principle • curvatures

  26. 2. Feature description • Create histogram of local gradient directions computed at selected scale • Assign canonical orientation at peak of smoothed histogram • Assign orientation to keypoints

  27. 2. Feature description • Construct SIFT descriptor • Create array of orientation histograms • 8 orientations x 4x4 histogram array = 128 dimensions

  28. 2. Feature description • Advantage over simple correlation • Gradients less sensitive to illumination change • Gradients may shift: robust to deformation, viewpoint change

  29. Performance:stability to noise • Match features after random change in image scale & orientation, with differing levels of image noise • Find nearest neighbor in database of 30,000 features

  30. Performance:stability to affine change • Match features after random change in image scale & orientation, with 2% image noise, and affine distortion • Find nearest neighbor in database of 30,000 features

  31. Performance: distinctiveness • Vary size of database of features, with 30 degree affine change, 2% image noise • Measure % correct for single nearest neighbor match

  32. 3. Feature matching • For each feature in A, find nearest neighbor in B A B

  33. 3. Feature matching • Nearest neighbor search too slow for large database of 128-dimenional data • Approximate nearest neighbor search: • Best-bin-first [Beis et al. 97]: modification to k-d tree algorithm • Use heap data structure to identify bins in order by their distance from query point • Result: Can give speedup by factor of 1000 while finding nearest neighbor (of interest) 95% of the time

  34. 3. Feature matching • Reject false matches • Compare distance of nearest neighbor to second nearest neighbor • Common features aren’t distinctive, therefore bad • Threshold of 0.8 provides excellent separation

  35. 3. Feature matching • Now, given feature matches… • Find an object in the scene • Solve for homography (panorama) • …

  36. 3. Feature matching • Example: 3D object recognition

  37. 3. Feature matching • 3D object recognition • Assume affine transform: clusters of size >=3 • Looking for 3 matches out of 3000 that agree on same object and pose: too many outliers for RANSAC or LMS • Use Hough Transform • Each match votes for a hypothesis for object ID/pose • Voting for multiple bins & large bin size allow for error due to similarity approximation

  38. 3. Feature matching • 3D object recognition: solve for pose • Affine transform of [x,y] to [u,v]: • Rewrite to solve for transform parameters:

  39. 3. Feature matching • 3D object recognition: verify model • Discard outliers for pose solution in prev step • Perform top-down check for additional features • Evaluate probability that match is correct • Use Bayesian model, with probability that features would arise by chance if object was not present • Takes account of object size in image, textured regions, model feature count in database, accuracy of fit [Lowe01]

  40. Planar recognition • Training images

  41. Planar recognition • Reliably recognized at a rotation of 60° away from the camera • Affine fit approximates perspective projection • Only 3 points are needed for recognition

  42. 3D object recognition • Training images

  43. 3D object recognition • Only 3 keys are needed for recognition, so extra keys provide robustness • Affine model is no longer as accurate

  44. Recognition under occlusion

  45. Illumination invariance

  46. Applications of SIFT • Object recognition • Panoramic image stitching • Robot localization • Video indexing • … • The Office of the Past • Document tracking and recognition

  47. Location recognition

  48. Robot Localization

  49. Map continuously built over time

  50. Locations of map features in 3D