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U NIT 1

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  1. UNIT 1 Invitation and Language Learning

  2. PART ONE SPEAKING and LISTENING

  3. 1.Words and phrases • appreciate / ə’pri∫ei t / v. 感激 • terrific / tə’rifik / a. 绝妙的 • transition / trænzi∫ən / n. 转换 • competence /kəm petəns / n. 能力 • optional / ɔp∫ənəl / a. 选修的 • literature / litərəʧə / n. 文化 • course / kɔ:s / n. 课程 • cross-culture / krɔskΛlʧə / n. 跨文化

  4. 1.Invitation • What about playing basketball now? • How about going shopping with me? • Do you want to have have lunch with me tomorrow? • Would you like to go to the park this weekend? • I was wondering if you could come over for dinner this evening? • How would you like to dance with me? • We’d like you to be our guest.

  5. 2.Reception • Thanks for the invitation. • I appreciate the invitation. • It is very nice of you to invite us. • That’s a terrific idea. • That’s wonderful. • We should be delighted. • Yes, I’d love to.

  6. II. Dialogue model about invitation and reception,listen to the tape and then repeat it twice. • A: We are going on an outing this weekend. • B: That sounds great! • A: Would you like to join us? • B: I’d love to. Thank you very much. Do you need to take a tent? • A: Of course. • A: Hello, Maria. We have a lecture in how to study English this afternoon. • B: Really? That’s great. • A: Would you like to come? • B: I’d like to. But you know, I have classes this afternoon. • A: What a pity!

  7. Exercise of Speaking • III. Activities in pairs or groups. • Task 1. Act out the dialogue above,role-playing. • Task 2. Retell the the dialogue above • Task 3. Create a new dialogue according to the one above,

  8. Exercise of Listening I. Listen to a group of words, then make your choice. • 1. A. hand B. head C. hat D. height • 2. A. bank B. back C. bake D. bark • 3. A. close B. cloth C. clothing D .cue • 4. A. knife B. wife C. life D. laugh • 5. A. interest B. intresting C. interested D. insert • 6. A. sense B.size C. see D. sit

  9. II. Listen to the following sentences twice, fill in the missing words. • For most students, the transition from high school to ____________ classes is a shock. • It takes some freshmen many months to _________ to the lecture and note-taking system. • Preparation for the change gives the student ____________ and competence. • From the ___________, I want to be an efffective listener. • Listening _________ can be developed and note-taking techniques can be learned.

  10. III. Listen to conversation twice, decide whether the following statements are true or false. • ( ) 1. Li Ming majors in economics . • ( ) 2. Zhang Li comes from Qing Dao. • ( ) 3. Li Ming will help Zhang Li get a student card. • ( ) 4. Li Ming invited Zhang Li to take part in a party, but Zhang Li refused. • ( ) 5. Zhang Li and Li Ming knew each other before.

  11. Keys to Listening Exercises • I. 1. C 2. A 3. C 4. B 5. A 6. D • II. 1. college-level 2. adapt 3. confidence 4. beginning 5. skill • III. 1. T 2. F 3. F 4. F 5. F

  12. Intensive Reading • I New Words and Phrases • be familiar with (sth.)对…熟悉 • take (sth) for granted 想当然地以为 •  in question 正被谈论的; 目前所涉及的 • geometry n.几何学 • systematically adv.有系统地 • ultimate adj. 最终的 • subsequently adv.随后, 后来 • misconception n.误解 • embark vi.着手 • embark on 从事; 着手于 • barely adv.几乎不 • voyage n.航行 • currently adv.目前 • complex adj.复杂的 • particularly adv. 尤其, 特别 • variety n.种种; 各类 • a variety of 各种各样

  13. regional adj.地区性的 • dialect n. 方言 • historical adj.历史上的 • mingle v. (使)混合 • hybrid n. (由不同语言中的词组成的)混合语言 • career n.事业 • collide vi.碰撞, 冲突 • be subjected to 经历, 遭受 • acquire vt.获得 • bits and pieces 零碎东西 • (be) in contact with 与…联系 • fortunately adv.幸运地 • unfortunately adv.不幸地 • far from 毫不, 远非 • specific adj.具体的, 特定的 • chess set 一套棋 • somewhat adv.有点, 稍微 • core n.核心

  14. legitimate adj.合理的, 合法的 • extension n.延伸 • crew n. (飞机、船等)全体工作人员 • genius n.天资; 天才 • arise vi.发生, 出现; 产生 • arise out of 由…产生, 源自 • cabbage n.大白菜 • literal adj.字面的; 实际的 • identification n.识别; 鉴定 • nevertheless adv.然而 • convey vt.传达 • practitioner n.实践者 • the United Kingdom 联合王国(实际指英国) • to the extent that 到…程度 • Brooklyn 布鲁克林(纽约的一个区) • Cockney n.伦敦佬 • colonel n. 上校 • Californian adj.加利福尼亚的 • flower-boy n.嬉皮士 • vast adj.巨大的

  15. Intensive Reading Learning a Language • When we talk about learning a language like English, Japanese or Spanish, we speak and think as though the language in question were a fixed unchanging thing. We expect to learn it as we learned geometry or how to ride a bicycle – systematically, and with clear ultimate success. Many people subsequently give up when they discover just what a misconception this is. They have in fact embarked on an activity that could last the rest of their lives. The experience makes them realize that they are not only going to have to work very hard indeed if they want to succeed, but also that they are – in many cases – barely masters of the language they call their own “mother tongue”. • Studying any language is, in fact, an endless voyage. Each of the thousands of languages currently used in the world is a complex affair. complex affair.

  16. Many languages do have a standard form – particularly on paper – and this is what we learn, but they probably also have a variety ofregional dialects and social styles, and many are the products of the historicalmingling of other languages. The English language is just such a hybrid. It began its career just under two thousand years ago as a form of ancient German, collided with a special kind of old French, was subjected to several waves of Latin and a flood of Greek, and since then has acquiredbits and pieces of every other language that its users have ever been in contact with. • 3 A second common misconception about language is that words have fixed and clear meanings. This is – fortunately or unfortunately – far from true. Take even the apparently simple and specific English word man. It seems clear enough; it refers to “an adult male human being”. Of course it does, but just consider for a moment the following sentences: • 1) There are several men missing in that chess set. • 2) The boat was manned entirely by women and children.

  17. You might argue that these sentences are somewhat unnatural; certainly, they do not represent the everyday core meaning of the word man. They are, however, legitimateextensions of that core meaning, the second being especially interesting because it is a verb and not a noun, and suggests that we expect adult male human beings to serve as the crews of ships, not women and certainly not children. Part of the pleasure and genius of language may well arise out of this slight “misuse” of words. After all, if you call a person a cat or a cabbage, no literal identification is intended, but a great deal of meaning is nevertheless conveyed. • A third misconception about language claims that every language is – or should be – equally used and understood by all its practitioners everywhere. Certainly, users of the standard forms of English in the United Kingdom generally understand their equivalents in the United States; the degree of similarity between these two major forms of English is great. Dialect-users in these countries, however, have serious problems understanding each other, to the extent that they may wonder if they are actually using the same language. Someone form Brooklyn, New York, will have trouble with a Cockney form London; and old-style British Army colonel won’t do well in discussions with a Californianflower-boy. Yet they all belong within the vast community of 20th century World English.

  18. Version • 当我们谈论语言学习,像英语、日语或西班牙语等的学习时,我们的言谈和思维都透露出我们所谈论的语言好像是一种固定不变的东西。我们期望学习语言像学习几何学或学习如何骑自行车一样――系统地学习,最终目标明确。很多人当发现这只是一个错误的想法时随后就放弃了。他们实际上踏上了一条能持续一生的旅程。这种经历使他们不仅意识到如果他们想成功他们就得非常努力,还意识到在多数情况下他们几乎不可能成为他们自称为是自己母语的语言的精通者。 • 实际上,学习任何语言都是一条没有止境的航行。世界上现在所用的上千种语言中的任何一种都是非常复杂的。很多语言确实有标准形式,尤其在书面上,而且这也是我们所学习的;它们可能还有各种各样的地方性方言和不同的社会形式,不仅如此,有很多还是其它语言的历史混合的产物。英语就是这样一种混合语言。英语两千年前是以古德语的形式存在的,然后受到古法语的冲击,又受到一些拉丁语和希腊语的影响;之后,由于英语的使用者又接触到其他一些语言,英语又受到那些语言的零零碎碎的影响。

  19. 关于语言的另外一个错误的看法是认为每个词都有明确固定的意思。这一点远非如此。就拿那个非常简单特定的英语单词man来说吧, 这个词的词义似乎足够明确了,指的是成年男性。当然是这样,但是,考虑一下下面的句子: • 1) There are several men missing in that chess set. • 2) The boat was manned entirely by women and children. • 你可能会争辩说这些句子有点不正常;当然,它们并不代表单词man的日常核心意思。然而它们也是其核心意思的合理引申;句子2)里的man尤其有意思,因为它是一个动词而非名词,并且暗示了我们期望成年男性来充当船上的工作人员,而不是妇女,当然更不是孩子。语言使用的聪明之处和乐趣就部分地来自于这种词的“无用”。毕竟,如果你叫一个人猫或白菜,并没打算表达猫或白菜的字面意思,但是很多隐含的意义已经传递出来了。 • 第三个对语言的误解声称每种语言都是――或应该是――被其各地的使用者同样应用和理解的。当然,在英国英语标准形式的使用者通常都理解其美国标准形式的使用者;英语的这两种主要形式有很大的相似度。然而,这两个国家的方言使用者却很难理解彼此,以致于他们会怀疑他们是否使用的是同样的语言。比如,一个从纽约布鲁克林来的人会很难理解一个伦敦佬;一个旧式的英国军队的上校会无法和一个加利福尼亚的嬉皮士进行讨论。但他们都属于这个20世纪世界英语的大社区。

  20. Exercises • I. Reading Comprehension • Answer the following questions according to the text. • 1. What do people usually expect when they talk about learning a language? • When people talk about learning a language, they usually expect to learn it as they learn geometry or how to ride a bicycle , which are learned systematically, with clear ultimate success. In other words, they tend to think that language is a fixed unchanging thing. 2. What do they eventually discover? They may eventually discover their view of language learning is wrong. Language learning is a life-long activity, and requires very hard work if they want to succeed. 3. In what sense is the statement that studying any language is an endless voyage true? Studying a language is an endless voyage because any natural human language is a complex affair with many varieties of regional dialects, social styles and a long historical heritage. 4. Why does the writer say that the English language is a hybrid? The English language has mingled with many other languages in its development. It originated from a form of ancient German, was later mixed with Old English and was influenced by many other languages such as Latin and Greek.

  21. 5. What is the purpose of the two example sentences cited in the article? • The purpose of the two examples is to indicate that the meaning of a word is not always the same. Words may generate meanings that are legitimate extensions of their core meaning. 6. What can be the effect of a slight “misuse” of words? Unnatural though it may seem to some people, a slight “misuse” of words can give them extra meanings which are legitimate extensions of their core meanings. It is part of the reason why language is so wonderful and pleasurable. 7. What is the lesson that you, as a language learner, can draw from this text? This is an open-ended question. To help the students sort out the ideas discussed in the text, the teacher can put the tree misconceptions on the board. Ask the students for opinions as to how they may be proved wrong. For example, for the first misconception that language learning is just like learning geometry or something like it, with clear ultimate success, the following points may be drawn from the text: work hard and be patient in one’s language study, be systematic and realistic in planning one’s study, etc.

  22. II. Match the following words in Column A with the Chinese meaning in Column B. • Column A • 1. misconception • 2. crew • 3. practitioner • 4. voyage • 5. hybrid • 6. dialect • 7. regional

  23. Column B • a. form of a language used in a part of a country or by a class of people • b. journey by water, esp. a long one in a ship • c. a language mixed by other languages • d. all the persons working on a ship, aircraft, train, etc • e. wrong understanding about sth. • f. of a region • g. one who practise a skill or art • 答案: • 1. e 2. d 3. g 4. b 5. c 6. a 7. f

  24. III. Use the following given words and phrases to produce sentences in the way as is shown in the model. • 1. Model: Englishwas subjected to several waves of Latin and a flood of Greek… • a. land / on both sides / the Yellow River / be subjected to / floods • The land on both sides of the Yellow River was subjected to floods. • b. years ago / black children / be subjected to / discrimination (歧视)/ many schools • Years ago, black children were subjected to discrimination in may schools. • 2. Model: This is unfortunately far fromtrue. • a. your work / far from / satisfactory • Your work is far from satisfactory. b. far from / admire his paintings / I / dislike / them Far from admiring his paintings, I dislike them

  25. 3. Model: Part of the pleasure and genius of language may well arise out of this slight “misuse” of words. • a. their quarrel / arise out of / money • Their quarrel arose out of money. b. Tom and Mary / have a heated discussion / which / arise out of / their personality / different • Tom and Mary had a heated discussion, which arose out of their different personalities. 4. Model: But a great deal of meaning is neverthelessconveyed. • a. girl / too young / convey / idea / coherently (连贯地) • The girl is too young to convey her ideas coherently. b. her smile / convey / satisfaction / her daughter’s performance (表现) Her smile conveyed her satisfaction with her daughter’s performance. • Model: Dialect-users in these countries have serious problems understanding each other • to the extent thatthey may wonder if they are using the same language. • a. husband and wife / have trouble trusting each other / to the extent that / they / intend to / live apart • husband and wife had trouble trusting each other to the extent that they intend to live apart. • b. they / be / very good friends/ to the extent that / they / stay together/ all the time • They are very good friend to the extent that they stay together all the time.

  26. IV. Vocabulary and structure • 1. It will become much easier if you learn to ride a bicycle _______. • A. systematically B. subsequently C. apparently D. ultimate • 2. She is a person with _______ patience (耐心); she will give everybody a hand if they ask her for help • and never say no to them. • A. ending B. end C. endless D. helpless • 3. If you go to the Three Gorges from Henan province by ship, it will be a long ________. • A. journey B. voyage C. trip D. travel • 4. As the bus came round the corner, it ______ with a van (货车). • A. met B. struck C. collide D. collided

  27. 5. They are such close friends that every other day they will have a _______ with each other. • A. contact B. contest C. constant D. converse • 6. There are ___ large _____ goods in the market to choose from. • A. a type of B. a kind of C. a variety of D. kinds of • 7. Dad and I differ completely and don’t see much of each other. _______, I still love him, for he is • my father. • A. at all B. after a while C. after all D. all over • 8. After all day’s work, I was tired to the ________ that I didn’t want to do anything at all. • A. extensive B. extend C. exclusive D. extent 答案:1. A 2. C 3. B 4. D 5. A 6. C 7. C 8. D

  28. V. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. • legitimate ultimate convey equivalent subsequently identification variety collide • 1. The female singer dislikes intense publicity, which __________ leads to her retreat into obscurity. • 2. My father looked at me and did not say anything. But I knew his silence was the __________ of encouragement and trust. • 3. The Minister could not find a __________ excuse for his not telling the truth. • 4. __________ of where things go wrong is the first step leading to the solution of a problem. • 5. Sometimes body language can __________ meaning more effectively than words. • 6. I have had a __________ of experiences with cars, but I still cannot drive it well. • 7. It often happens in many families that the value system of the older generation __________ with that of the younger generation. • 8. The suspect (嫌疑犯) was arrested for robbery (抢劫) and __________ sentenced to three years’ imprisonment. • 1. subsequently 2. equivalent 3. legitimate 4. Identification • 5. convey 6. variety 7. collides 8. subsequently

  29. VI. Translate the following sentences into Chinese. • 1. When we talk about learning a language like English, Japanese or Spanish, we speak and think as though the language in question were a fixed unchanging thing. • __________________________________________________________________________ • 2. The experience makes them realize that they are not only going to have to work very hard indeed if they want to succeed, but also that they are – in many cases – barely masters of the language they call their own “mother tongue”. • __________________________________________________________________________ • 3. Studying any language is, in fact, an endless voyage. • ___________________________________________________________________________ • 4. This is – fortunately or unfortunately – far from true. • ___________________________________________________________________________ • 5. …the second being especially interesting because it is a verb and not a noun, and suggests that we expect adult male human beings to serve as the crews of ships, not women and certainly not children. • _______________________________________________________________________

  30. VII. Translate the following sentences into English, using the words in the brackets. • 1. 政府希望为正在考虑的工程获得足够的支持。(in question) • The government hopes to gain enough support for the project in question. 2. 许多专家都开始着手研究新的世界语。(embark on) Many experts have embarked on the study of a new universal language. 3. 他只能在厨房中发现一些零零碎碎的东西。(bits and pieces) He could only find some bits and pieces in the kitchen. 4. 他们之间的争吵因为一句小小的玩笑。(arise out of) Their quarrel arose out of a small joke.

  31. Extensive ReadingA World Language • New words and Expressions • scatter / skt/ v.散布continent / kntinnt/ n. 洲 大陆 • surpass /sps/ v. 超越quarter / kwt/ n. 四分之一 • telex / teleks/ n.直通电报cable / keibl/ n.海底电报 • periodical /piridikl/ n.期刊Silicon Valley 硅谷 • medium / midim/ n.媒介物 手段deal /dil/n.交易 • conduct / kndkt / v. 处理transmit /trnzmit/ v.播送 • exceed /iksid/ v. 超出、超过access / kses/ n.通道 通路 • scholarship / sklip/ n.学术成就involve /invlv/ v. 涉及 • possession /pzen/ n.所有物property / prpti/ n.财产 所有物 • Nigerian /naidirn/ n. 尼日利亚人

  32. 1.About three hundred and fifty million people use the English language as a mother tongue: about one-tenth of the world’s population, scattered across every continent and surpassed in numbers only by the speakers of the many varieties of Chinese. Three- quarters of the world’s mail, and its telexes and cables, are in English. So are more than half the world’s technical and scientific periodicals: it is the language of technology from Silicon Valley to Shanghai. English is the medium for eighty percent of the information stored in the world’s computers. Nearly half of all thebusiness deals in Europe are conducted in English. It is also the language of sports: the official language of the Olympics. Five of the largest broadcasting companies in the world (CBS, NBC, ABC, BBC, CBC) transmit in English to audiences that regularly exceed one hundred million.

  33. 2.To people in Africa, Asia, and South America, English is an important foreign language to master, not merely because it is the language of Britain or the United States, but because it provides ready access to world scholarship and world trade. It is understood more widely than any other language. • 3.It’s true, then that a great many people--- and a great many peoples--- are involved in the use of English. Millions of men and women in four continents have English as their first language, and millions in every part of the world use it as their second or foreign language. This gives us some idea of the importance of English, and it shows both the United States and Britain that the language is not the possession of these two nations alone. It is also the property of the Canadian and the Indian, the Australian and the Nigerian. It belongs to all those who use it.

  34. Version • 世界语言 • 大约有3亿5千万人以英语为母语:约占世界人口的1/10,且发布于全球各个大陆,在数量上仅次于操各种华语的华人。全世界3/4的邮件以及直通电报和海底电报均使用英语。全世界一半以上的科技期刊所用的语言也是英语:从硅谷到上海,科技界使用的也是英语。全球电脑中80%的信息都是用英语储存的。欧洲几乎一半的商业交易都是用英语进行的。英语还是体育界的语言:奥林匹克的官方语言是英语。世界上5家最大的广播公司(CBS, NBC, ABC, BBC, CBC)用英语播送节目,其听众人数通常超过1亿。 • 对于非洲;亚洲和南美洲人来说,英语是要掌握的一门重要外语,这并不仅仅因为英语是英国和美国的语言,而是因为它使人们容易使用世界学术成就和进行世界贸易。它比其他任何语言都更为普及。 • 因此,有一点是正确的:许许多多的人---许许多多的民族---都在使用英语。全球4个大陆上有无数的人把英语作为第一语言,世界各地还有无数的人把英语作为第二语言或者外语使用。这就使得我们对于英语的重要性有了一些认识,它也向英国和美国表明:英语并不仅仅归这两个国家所有。英语也是加拿大人;印度人;澳大利亚人和尼尔利亚人的通用语言。它属于所有使用英语的人们。

  35. I. Answer the following questions according to the text. • 1. How many people in the world speak English as their first language? • About three hundred and fifty million people. 2. How is English compared with Chinese in the passage? The number of the people who speak English as a mother tongue is surpassed by the number of the speakers of Chinese. 3. Are most technical and scientific periodicals in the world in English? Yes. 4. How many people listen to the English programs transmitted by the five largest broadcasting companies in the world? More than one hundred million.

  36. 5. Why is English important to people in Africa, Asia and South America? • Because English can provide ready access to world scholarship and world trade. 6. Why is English not the possession of USA and Britain alone? Because a great many people---and a great many peoples---are involved in the use of English, and millions of people in the world use it as the first language, the second or foreign language. 7. Whom does the English language belong to? It belongs to all those who use it. 8. What does the author want to tell the readers in this passage? The author wants to tell the readers that English is very important and that it is widely used in the world.

  37. Ⅲ. Fill in the blanks with the words given in their appropriate forms. • The end of the exam procedure, which is in some cases worse than the 1) _____ (revise) period, is awaiting the results. While 2) ____ (wait), you can’t do much about your own school work.. You feel that it is very hard to resist the 3) ____ (tempt) to light a fire with all your notebooks and files instead of logs, but at the same time you feel that you had better 4)____ (keep) all your notes safe in case you discover you have failed and need to retake all your subjects. The 5) ____ (bad) day of all is the one when you have know that the postman is to deliver the letter which 6) ____ (inform) you whether the academic world considers you a failure or a 7) _____ (succeed), whether you can get the job you want, or go to the university you wish to attend. That envelope is 8) ____ (contain) the key to your future and, perhaps most 9) ____ (importance) of all, to inform you whether you need to suffer again the horrors of 10) _____ (examine). • 1). Revision2). Waiting3). Temptation4). Keep5). worst • 6). will inform7). Success8). to contain9). importantly • 10). exams

  38. Practical Writing

  39. Sample 2 • 222Nanjin Road • Shanghai 200083 • China • 16 September, 2007 • Dear Smith, • We are very pleased to invite you to our annual conference. This year it will be taking place at the SanJin International Hotel, from 22 to 28 September. • Last year you gave the very important talk on the subject of “Development of Vocational Education”. We would be very grateful if you would consider introducing the latest trend of vocational education. • We enclose details of the conference, accommodation arrangements and an activity program. • We would appreciate if you could confirm your participation at your earliest convenience. • Yours Sincerely, • Wang Yi • Conference Organizer

  40. Task 1 Translate Sample 2 into Chinese. • Task 2 Write an invitation letter with the reference to the following information. • 1. 假如你的笔友Dianna要来北京度假,你得知这一消息后,写信邀请她在北京停留的时间里来家里做客,并且乐意为她当向导。 • 2. 李磊和张霞夫妇定于2008年10月4日星期六中午12:00在黄河大酒店为儿子李书楷和儿媳岳玲举办婚礼。邀请王山夫妇光临。

  41. key to Task I • 中国上海南京路222号200083 • 尊敬的史密斯先生: • 我们非常高兴地邀请您参加我们的年会。今年的年会定于9月22-28日在三晋国际饭店召开。 • 在去年的年会上您做了题为“职业教育发展”的报告。如果您这次能就职业教育发展的最新趋势给我们做一详细介绍的话,我们将不胜感激。 • 随信寄去会议的详细内容、住宿安排以及活动计划。 • 如果您能在您方便的时候尽快通知我们您能否出席此次会议,我们将非常感激。 • 王亦(会议组织者)敬上 • 2007年9月16日

  42. Key to Task II • Dear Dianna, • I have just learned that you are going to come to Beijing for a vacation. I’m planning to hold a party where you can meet my friends. I’ll be very pleased if you could stay with me a little longer when you are in Beijing. • Luckily, I’ll be on holiday when you are here, so I will be very happy to be your guide. Beijing is a very beautiful city. There are many famous places of interests. Beijing is also a very modern city. There are plenty of shopping places where you can buy anything you want to buy. • I’m really looking forward to seeing you. Do write soon and tell me the exact time you come. • Yours, • Li li

  43. Grammar • Task 1 Complete the following sentences using the infinitive. • 1. He promised me _____________________________ (再也不迟到了). • 2. It ___________ (使我想起了) my wonderful childhood. • 3. The mother __________________________ (不允许孩子们玩) in the street. • 4. The problem is______________ (如何采取有效的措施避免) the same thing to happen again.. • 5. It’s good ___________ (帮助别人) when they are in trouble. • 6. What I want is ________________________________ (你把这个问题理解清楚). • 7. _________ (说) is one thing; ____________ (做) is quite another. • ____________________(让病人先和机器人医生交流) before they go to see a human doctor. • 9. The most difficult thing is _______________ (如何提高) our English level as soon as possible. • 10. They arrived at the museum __________ (结果意识到) the exhibition had been canceled.

  44. Keys to Grammar • Task 1 Complete the following sentences using the infinitive. • 1. not to be late again 2. made me think of 3. didn’t allow the children to play • 4. how to take effective measures to avoid 5. to help others • 6. for you to understand the question clearly 7. To say; to do • 8. Let the patient talk with Dr. Robot 9. how to improve • 10. only to realize

  45. Task 2 Choose the best answer. • 1. They left earlier ________ see the sunrise. • A. so B. in order that C. so as to D. so that • 2. The duties of the secretary are to open the mail, to receive visitors and ________. • A. to type letters B. types letters C. typing letters D. typed letters • 3. The teacher had the boy ________ all at once. • A. to do it B. do it C. to be doing D. to do • 4. One must work hard ________ an education. • A. getting B. to get C. got D. gotten • 5. The library is one of the largest ________ in China. • A. to find B. found C. have found D. to be found

  46. 6. Industries as well as households must make greater efforts ________ water. • A. save B. saving C. to save D. saved • 7. I can’t decide how many courses ________ this term. • A. take B. taking C. to take D. took • 8. It was a good idea ______ some shopping on such a sunny day. • A. for us to go and did B. of us to go and did • C. that we went and do D. we went to do • 9. He persuaded the little boy _______ trouble. • A. to make B. not make C. made D. not to make • 10. The children laughed ______ the two clowns(小丑、滑稽人/演员). • A. seeing B. saw C. see D. to see Task 2 Choose the best answer 答案:1. C 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. D 6. C 7. C 8. A 9. D 10. D

  47. Translation • 1. Generally speaking, the magician’s tricks are not likely seen by the audience. • 2. An automobile must have a brake with high efficiency. • 3. In the United States, college students can leave school temporarily to do business to pay for the tuition. • 4. We cannot ignore such provocations. • 5. Let’s make it a temporary decision.

  48. 6. It would be nice that she was able to send a message for us. But we had to be cautious. • 7. There was a sudden change of weather. • 8. Conductors are all substances that allow electricity to flow through easily. • 9. You’ll be the chairman at today’s meeting. • 10. This telephone is not for public use.

  49. 1. 总的说来,观众好像没看出魔术师的魔术奥秘. • 2. 汽车的刹车必须灵敏度高. • 3. 美国的大学生可以暂时离开就读的学校作生意来支付学费. • 4. 这个挑衅我们决不能视而不见. • 5. 我们先暂时这么决定吧。

  50. 6。她真好会给我们发信息,但我们必须耐心。 6。她真好会给我们发信息,但我们必须耐心。 • 7。天气突变。 • 8 导体能导电。 • 9。今天的会议您是主持。 • 10。这是公用电话。