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Early PC Graphics

Early PC Graphics

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Early PC Graphics

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  1. Early PC Graphics Capabilities of the IBM Color Graphics Adapter (CGA) and Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA)

  2. IBM product introductions • MDA: introduced with IBM-PC in 1981 • CGA: introduced as an option in 1982 • EGA: introduced in 1984 (to replace CGA) • VGA: introduced in 1987 (as PS/2 option)

  3. CGA • Engineered to coexist with IBM’s Monochrome Display Adapter (MDA), used for text display • Designed to operate with Intel’s 8086/8088 CPU • MDA: max 32K VRAM: 0xB0000-0xB7FFF • CGA: max 32K VRAM: 0xB8000-0xBFFFF • Designed to operate with Motorola’s 6845 CRTC • MDA: uses cpu’s i/o ports 0x3B4-0x3B5 • CGA: uses cpu’s i/o ports 0x3D4-0x3D5

  4. The IBM design imperatives 1) CGA shall work with 8086 CPU 8086 memory-addresses are 20-bits, so memory is restricted to 1 megabyte employs ‘segmented’ architecture that use 16-bit register-offsets MDA 0xB0000 2) CGA shall coexist with the MDA The VRAM for IBM-PC’s Monochrome Display Adapter resides in a ‘reserved’ address-range starting from 0xB0000 1-MB Consequently: CGA’s VRAM starts at 0xB8000 and fits in a 32KB region

  5. The imperatives (continued) 3) CGA shall use 6845 CRTC Motorola 6845 Cathode Ray Tube controller implemented only 7-bits for addressing display scan lines so could not address 200 rows in just one screen-refresh cycle Consequently: CGA’s VRAM shall be accessed in alternating ‘banks’ upper bank 0x2000 Data for odd-numbered scan lines lower bank Data for even-numbered scan lines 0x0000 CGA VRAM

  6. “Interlaced” VRAM addressing • Even-numbered scanlines in lower bank: • scanline 0: starts at offset 0 • scanline 2: starts at offset 80 • scanline 4: starts at offset 160 • Odd-numbered scanlines in upper bank: • scanline 1: starts at offset 0x2000 • scanline 3: starts at offset 0x2000 + 80 • Scanline 5: starts at offset 0x2000 + 160

  7. CGA graphics capabilities • Two graphics modes (2-color or 4-color) • Both use “packed-pixel” memory-model • 8 pixels-per-byte, or 4 pixels-per-byte • Four 4-color palette choices: • black+cyan+red+white • black+cyan+violet+white • black+green+red+yellow • black+dark-gray+light-gray+white

  8. CGA screen resolutions • color: 320x200 (4 packed pixels-per-byte) memory: 320x200/4 = 16000 bytes • mono: 640x200 (8 packed pixels-per-byte) memory: 640x200/8 = 16000 bytes 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

  9. Pixel-drawing Algorithm (mono) void draw_pixel_1( int x, int y, int color ) { int locn = 0x2000*(y%2) + 80*(y/2) + (x/8); int mask = (1<<7) >> (x%8); unsigned char temp = vram[ locn ]; color &= 1; color <<= 7; color >> (x%8); temp &= ~mask; temp |= color; vram[ locn ] = temp; }

  10. Pixel-drawing Algorithm (color) void draw_pixel_2( int x, int y, int color ) { int locn = 0x2000*(y%2) + 80*(y/2) + (2*x/8); int mask = (3<<6) >> (2*x%8); unsigned char temp = vram[ locn ]; color &= 3; color <<= 6; color >> (2*x%8); temp &= ~mask; temp |= color; vram[ locn ] = temp; }

  11. CGA pixels aren’t square • Physical screen has 4:3 aspect-ratio • CGA visual screen-resolutions: • color screen is 320x200 (ratio is 8:5) • b&w screen is 640x200 (ratio is 16:5) • Physical square would be: • 4-color mode: 240 wide by 200 high • 2-color mode: 480 wide by 200 high • So logical pixels are “stretched” vertically

  12. Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) • Backward compatibility with the CGA • Plus four additional display modes • Higher graphics resolutions • Greater color depths (16-colors) • Faster screen refresh rates • Needed to support more video memory • Simplify video memory-byte addressing • Needed additional “controller” hardware

  13. EGA display modes • New display modes 13, 14, 15, 16 • 13: 320x200 with 16-colors • 14: 640x200 with 16-colors • 15: 640x350 2-colors (monochrome) • 16: 640x350 4-colors w/64K vram or 16-colors w/128K vram • But uses “planar” memory organization, so relies on “Graphics Controller” hardware

  14. Four memory “planes” • Each CPU byte-address controls 8 pixels • CPU addresses bytes in 4 parallel planes 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

  15. Graphics Controller registers • 0: Set/Reset register • 1: Enable Set/Reset register • 2: Color Compare register • 3: Data-Rotate/Function-Select • 4: Read Map Select register • 5: Mode register • 6: Miscellaneous register • 7: Color Don’t Care register • 8: Bit Mask register

  16. Addressing device-registers • Nine Graphics Controller registers (8-bits) • Two ‘read’ modes, and four ‘write’ modes • Multiplexed i/o addressing scheme: - register index is written to i/o port 0x3CE - register value is accessed via port 0x3CF • CPU allows a pair of bytes to be written to adjacent port-addresses in one instruction

  17. Reading a byte from VRAM • Select which memory-plane • Perform CPU read-byte instruction movb vram(%esi), %al • Bytes from all four planes are copied to Graphics Controller’s Latches (32-bits) • But only selected plane’s byte goes to AL

  18. Read operation illustrated plane 0 plane 3 plane 2 plane 1 Controller’s Latch register 2 Controller’s Read Map Select register CPU register AL

  19. Writing a byte to VRAM • Four distinct write modes (must choose) • We illustrate Write Mode 0 (“Direct Write”) • Four graphics controller registers involved: index 0: Set/Reset register index 1: Enable Set/Reset register index 3: Data-Rotate/Function-Select index 8: Bit Mask register

  20. Steps for Write Mode 0 • The new “fill color” goes into Set/Reset • Set Enable Set/Reset to enable all planes • Zero goes in Data-Rotate/Function-Select • Setup Bit Mask for the pixel(s) to modify • After these setup steps: • CPU reads from VRAM (to load the latches) • CPU writes to VRAM (to modify the pixel(s))

  21. Set/Reset (index 0) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 The new fill-color Value (range is 0..15) outb( 0, 0x3CE ); // select Set/Reset register outb( color, 0x3CF ); // output the color-value Alternative programming (in one-step) outw( (color<<8)|0, 0x3CE );

  22. Enable Set/Reset 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 = plane is write-protected 1 = plane can be modified outb( 1, 0x3CE ); // select Enable Set/Reset outb( 0x0F, 0x3CF ); // output selection bits Alternative programming (in one-step) outw( 0x0F01, 0x3CE );

  23. Data-Rotate (index 3) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Function Select Data-Rotation Count 0 to 7 bits (to right) Functions: 00=copy, 01=AND, 10=OR, 11=XOR (with Latch contents) outb( 3, 0x3CE ); // select Data-Rotate register outb( 0x00, 0x3CF ); // output the register value Alternative programming (in one-step) outw( 0x0003, 0x3CE );

  24. Bit Mask (index 8) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 The corresponding pixel will be modified (=1) or unmodified (=0) outb( 8, 0x3CE ); // select the Bit Mask register outb( mask, 0x3CF ); // output the register value Alternative programming (in one-step) outw( (mask<<8)|3, 0x3CE );

  25. Write Mode 0 illustrated VRAM: Latch Register 00000111 Bit Mask Fill-Color Set/Reset VRAM:

  26. The EGA’s 16-color palette 4-bits A 4-bit pixel-value from planar vram selects a color from the palette to draw onto the display screen “planar” vram Color palette (16 colors) Display screen

  27. Video Graphics Array (VGA) • Offers both CGA and EGA emulation • And supports three new display modes: mode 17: improved monochrome graphics mode 18: 16-colors using “square” pixels mode 19: supports 256 colors (8 bits/pixel) • Provides faster display-refresh rates • Supports analog multisync monitors

  28. Class Demos • ‘cgademo.cpp’ (4-color and b&w modes) • ‘egademo.cpp’ (shows 16-color palette) • ‘vgademo.cpp’ (square-pixels/256 colors)

  29. In-class exercise #1 • Use the ROM-BIOS ‘writestring’ service to add an explanatory title to our ‘egademo’ and ‘vgademo’ demonstration-programs (similar to code in our ‘cgademo’ program) • Details on register-usage for the INT-0x10 firmware services are documented online on the ‘Ralf Brown Interrupt-List’ website

  30. In-class exercise #2 • Our EGA and VGA demo-programs make use of graphics display-modes 16 and 19 • Mode 16: 320-by-200 (4-bpp) • Mode 19: 320-by-200 (8-bpp) • These modes do not have “square” pixels, so the circles look like ovals (“stretched”) • Can you add an extra view that “corrects” for the distorted pixel-shape? (as in CGA)