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Kingdom Plantae

Kingdom Plantae

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Kingdom Plantae

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  1. Kingdom Plantae

  2. Introduction Plants are placed into 2 groups based on structural and functional similarities, but all plants share the following characteristics. A. Eukaryotic B. Multicellular C. Have organs and organ systems E. Have cell walls composed of cellulose F. Are autotrophic G. Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplastof plant cells • CO2 + H2O  C6H12O6 + O2 H. All are non-motile • Special adaptations are therefore required for reproduction

  3. Plant Structure and Growth A. Roots – Functions: • Anchor the plant • Absorb waterand minerals • Transport these materials to the stem • Some plants store food in roots • Each root has root hairs, increase surfacearea for water absorption

  4. Plant Structure and Growth B. Stems – Functions: • Support for the plant • Transport water and minerals • Modified stem for storage of food • Example: Potato

  5. Plant Structure and Growth C. Leaves – Functions: • Main organ for photosynthesis • Large surface area for maximum light absorption

  6. Plant Structure and Growth Structure of Leaf a.) Cuticle: waxy covering to prevent water loss b.) Epidermis: Outermost layer of cells; prevents injury, infection c.) Mesophyll: Photosynthetic layer of leaf 1. Palisade layer: upper portion of mesophyll with closely packed cells; site of most photosynthesis 2. Spongy layer: Underside of leaf; loosely – packed cells allow for gas exchange of CO2 and O2 d.) Vein: xylem and phloem e.) Stomata: Opening in underside of leaf that allows CO2 (carbon dioxide) to enter and O2 (oxygen) to exit f.) Guard cells: Control the size of stomata. Work to preserve balance between allowing for gas exchange without losing too much water. “Plant sweat” is known as transpiration.

  7. Plant Structure and Growth D. Plant Transport The 2 types of vascular tissue: 1. Xylem: transports water and minerals from the root to the rest of the plant 2. Phloem: transports “food” (glucose) from the leaves to the rest of the plant

  8. Plant Structure and Growth E. Plant growth 1. Primary growth: Life long growth occurs at the tip of the stem and the end of the roots 2. Secondary Growth: Trees and some other plants have a second type that allows them to grow in width or girth.

  9. Plant Structure and Growth F. Seeds A seed consist of an embryo surrounded by a tough protective coat. Dicot Seed

  10. Plant Classification Plants are classified into 2 basic groups based on whether they contain vasculartissue.

  11. Plant Classification mosses A. Bryophytes – No vascular tissue present • Depends on water for reproduction • No vascular system, therefore no taller than 20 cm • Examples: mosses, hornworts, liverworts liverworts hornworts,

  12. Plant Classification B. Tracheophytes – contain vascular tissue • Grow taller • Live in drier climates The tracheophytes are further subdivided based on the presence or absence of pollen, seeds and fruit. 1. Pterophytes 2. Gymnosperms 3. Angiosperms Pterophytes Gymnosperms Angiosperms

  13. Plant Classification 1. Pterophytes – commonly called ferns • No pollen • No seeds • No fruits • Found predominantly in moist climates because the sperm must swim to the egg cell

  14. Plant Classification 2. Gymnosperms – “naked seed” • Have pollen • Have seeds not protected by fruit • No fruit • Cones present • Example: Largest group is the conifers which includes pines, spruce, cedar • Have common characteristic leaves called needles, which are modified to prevent water loss and minimize ice build – up • Have “flying sperm” or pollen, so they are no longer tied to water for reproduction

  15. Plant Classification 3. Angiosperms • Most complex and adaptable • Most successful • Have pollen • Have seeds • Have fruit • Mature ovary • Contains one or more seeds • Provides embryo with protection • Increases seed dispersal

  16. Plant Classification Angiosperms cont. • Have flowers • It enhances pollination • Parts of the flower • Stamen – male reproductive organ • Anther – where pollen is produced, which contain the sperm cells • Filament – holds up the anther • Pistil – female reproductive organ • Stigma – sticky to hold pollen • Style – holds up the sigma • Ovary – where the egg is produced and fertilized • Petal – colorful and / or scented to attract pollenators

  17. stigma { anther Stamen filament style Carpel petal ovule ovary

  18. Class Monocots • One cotyledon – seed leaf • Parallel veins on leaves • Fibrous roots • Flower parts in multiples of 3 • Ex.: grasses, corn, lilies

  19. Class Dicot • Two cotyledon • Branching veins on leaves • Tap roots • Flowering parts in multiples of 4 or 5 • Ex.: roses, oak trees, etc.

  20. Monocots and Dicots