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Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function

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Cell Structure and Function

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Cell Structure and Function Chapter 3

  2. DO NOW • Type 2 Writing • 3 minutes • Write 3 things you learned/remembered from last night’s reading

  3. Announcements • Some tests have been graded • Check period grades are due Monday • Office hours Wed/Thurs 6:30 – 8 • Use study hall / Office hours to complete test

  4. History of the Cell • 1838 – Matthias Schleiden concluded all plants are made of cells • 1839 - Theodor Schwann stated all animals are made of cells • 1855 – Rudolf Virchow concluded new cells can only be created through division

  5. Cell Theory • All things are made up of cells • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things • New cells are produced from existing cells

  6. Modern Cell Theory • Energy flow occurs inside of cells • Genetics (DNA) passes between cells • All cells have the same basic chemical make up

  7. Anatomy of a Cell • Nucleus • Nucleoli • Chromatin • Turns to chromosomes • Plasma Membrane • Cytoplasm • Mitochondria • Ribosomes • Endoplasmic Reticulum • Golgi Apparatus

  8. Nucleus • “headquarters” of cell • Contains DNA • For +2, what does DNA stand for? • Contains: • Nucleoli • Create Ribosomes which synthesize proteins • Chromatin • Turns to chromosomes when dividing • Not dividing: protein and DNA

  9. Chromosomes • Contains DNA • Split to convert genetic material • Encode genetic material

  10. Plasma Membrane • Also Cell Membrane • Also protects and supports • Strong but flexible • Selectively permeable • Microvilli • Absorption

  11. Cytoplasm • Gel-like substance outside of the nucleus • 70-90% water • Mitochondria • Ribosomes • Endoplasmic Reticulum • Cytoskeleton

  12. Mitochondria • This is where oxygen is used to help break down food • “Energy source” of the cell • As food is broken down, energy is released • ATP is created • Provides energy for cellular work • Liver and muscle cells have hundreds of mitochondria to supply energy needs

  13. Ribosomes • Protein synthesis • Contains messages for other cells to carry out work

  14. Endoplasmic Reticulum • Rough and Smooth • Provides channels to carry proteins from one part of the cell to another • Rough ER • “studs” of ribosomes • Push proteins out to be transported • Smooth ER • Liver has many Smooth ERs to break down cholesterol and fat

  15. Vesicle • “Small bubbles” • Metabolism, transport and storage

  16. Cytoskeleton • Groups of protein filaments • Maintain shape • Involved in movement

  17. Cell Diversity (pg.73-75) • Cells connect body parts • Fibroblasts • Erythrocytes (RBCs) • Cells the cover and line body organs • Epithelial cells – Sheets like a honey comb • Cells that move organs and body parts • Skeletal muscle / Smooth muscle

  18. Cell Diversity (pg.73-75 • Storage Cells • Fat cells • Fight disease • Macrophage – digest infectious microorganisms • Gather info and control body function • Nerve cells – receives and transmits messages • Reproduction • Oocyte (female) • Sperm (male)

  19. Homework • Read 63-71 (stop at “Cytoskeleton)