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Subsurface Hydrology. Unsaturated Zone Hydrology. Groundwater Hydrology (Hydrogeology ). R = P - ET - RO. ET. ET. P. E. RO. R. R / P = ?. Water Table. Groundwater. Processes we might want to model Groundwater flow calculate both heads and flow

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## Subsurface Hydrology

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**Subsurface Hydrology**Unsaturated Zone Hydrology Groundwater Hydrology (Hydrogeology)**R = P - ET - RO**ET ET P E RO R R / P = ? Water Table Groundwater**Processes we might want to model**• Groundwater flow • calculate both heads and flow • Solute transport – requires information on flow (velocities) • calculate concentrations v = K I / n**Types of Models**• Physical (e.g., sand tank) • Analog (electric analog, Hele-Shaw) • Mathematical**Types of Models**• Physical (e.g., sand tank) • Analog (electric analog, Hele-Shaw) • Mathematical**Components of a Mathematical Model**• Governing Equation (Darcy’s law + water balance eqn) with head (h) as the dependent variable • Boundary Conditions • Initial conditions (for transient problems)**Toth Problem**Groundwater divide Groundwater divide Laplace Equation Impermeable Rock 2D, steady state**Conceptual Model**A descriptive representation of a groundwater system that incorporates an interpretation of the geological & hydrological conditions. Generally includes information about the water budget.**Types of Solutions of Mathematical Models**• Analytical Solutions: h= f(x,y,z,t) • (example: Theis eqn.) • Numerical Solutions • Finite difference methods • Finite element methods • Analytic Element Methods (AEM)**Topo-Drive**Finite element model of a version of the Toth Problem for regional flow in cross section.**Finite difference models**• may be solved using: • a computer programs (e.g., a FORTRAN program) • a spreadsheet (e.g., EXCEL)**MODFLOW**• USGS code • Finite Difference Model • MODFLOW 88 • MODFLOW 96 • MODFLOW 2000**Steps in Groundwater Modeling**• 1. Model Design • Calibration (History matching) • Prediction (head)

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