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Ladder Safety

Ladder Safety . Nipigon District Memorial Hospital . Types of Ladders. There are common causes for incidents involving ladders. Ladders were not held, tied off or otherwise secured Ladders had poor footing or were placed at improper angles

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Ladder Safety

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  1. Ladder Safety Nipigon District Memorial Hospital

  2. Types of Ladders There are common causes for incidents involving ladders. Ladders were not held, tied off or otherwise secured Ladders had poor footing or were placed at improper angles Ladders were poorly maintained, damaged or missing components The wrong type of ladder was used near electrical lines The person did not hold onto the ladder properly when climbing The person did not work in a safe position (eg. leaning out too far)

  3. Types of Ladders Choose the Right Ladder Ladders come in many styles, lengths and materials. Always choose the right type of ladder, ladder height and material for the job. In Canada, ladders are rated by the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and will be marked or labelled as CSA approved. Choose the right grade and load rating.

  4. Types of Ladders The most common types of ladders are: Step - used for general maintenance (indoors and outdoors) Platform - used for general maintenance (indoors and outdoors), warehouses, retail stores Articulated/Multi-purpose – used for general maintenance (indoors and outdoors) Straight – one piece ladder, typically used outdoors Extension – has two or three adjustable sections, is used outdoors, and has a higher reach than a single straight ladder Fixed – permanently attached to a wall, tank, etc

  5. Types of Ladders • Choosing the • Minimum Ladder Length • Working from any height can be dangerous. Ask yourself first - • Is there a safe alternative? • Do I need to use a ladder for the job? • Can the job be done from floor level? • If a ladder must be used to do the job, training in safe ladder use is essential.

  6. Types of Ladders • Choosing the • Minimum Ladder Length for • STEP LADDERS • Measure the highest point you will need to reach. This height will determine your ladder length. • Subtract your height from your • working height. • Add 60 cm or 2 feet.

  7. Types of Ladders • Choosing the • Minimum Ladder Length for • EXTENSION LADDERS • Measure the highest point you will need to reach. This height will determine your ladder length. • Add 20% of this length (to create the proper angle needed for stability) • Add 1 meter or 3 feet to the highest point you will need to reach.

  8. Types of Ladders Make sure your Ladder is at a Safe Angle! Lap Coverage is the length of overlap between the two sections of an extension ladder. Once you have set up your ladder, double check that your ladder is at a safe angle: At least 1 foot out from the support wall for every feet of ladder length At least 4 rungs should be extended above the point where the ladder makes contact with the wall at the top. This will help support your body.

  9. Types of Ladders • Types of Materials • Most ladders are manufactured from – • Wood • Aluminum • Fibreglass • Each type of material is used in specific circumstances and has specific requirements and special safety tips.

  10. Types of Ladders • WOODEN LADDERS • Inspect wooden ladders frequently for splits, shakes, or cracks • in side rails and rungs, warping or loosening of rungs, and • loosening of hardware. Never add metal supports or brackets. • Many people mistakenly believe that wooden ladders are safe • to use for electrical work. For many reasons, this is not the • case - • Wooden ladders are often constructed with metal slides along the rails to help make them stiffer. These metal slides will conduct electricity. • New wooden ladders are often finished with shellac or varnish to protect from moisture. Once this starts to erode, wear and crack, the ladder will absorb moisture and therefore conduct electricity. • Many wooden ladder manufacturers require ladders to be treated with a preservative or linseed oil which maintains the wood and prevents splitting. This treatment now allows the ladder to conduct electricity. • NEVER paint a wood ladder. Paint can hide cracks and other signs of wear.

  11. ALUMINUM LADDERS • Aluminum ladders are lighter than wooden ones, but can be damaged more readily. • Check side rails and rungs to inspect for missing slip-resistant feet, dents, bends and loose rungs. • When severely damaged, the ladder should be destroyed. Don’t try to straighten bent or warped ladders. • Aluminum ladders should not • be stored or used in • high temperature • environments. • NEVER use aluminum • ladders where • electrical contact • is possible.

  12. Types of Ladders • FIBREGLASS LADDERS • Fibreglass ladders are more resistant to damage and corrosion than aluminum ladders and do not conduct electricity well when dry. • If damaged, have them repaired by a person who is qualified to do so. Destroy the ladder if it is severely damaged. • Inspect for chips, cracks, and “blooming” (pieces of exposed glass fibre where the mat has worn off). • Fibreglass is heat sensitive. • Do not expose to temperatures • above 93 degrees Celsius • (200 degrees Fahrenheit).

  13. Inspection ALWAYS inspect the ladder before each use. Check for grease, oil, caulking, embedded stone and metal, and other materials that could make using a ladder unsafe. Check non-skid feet for wear, embedded material, and proper pivotal action of swivel feet. Replace frayed or worn ropes on extension ladders with type and size equal to manufacturer’s original rope. Check dents and bends in side rails, steps and rungs, and any cracks, wear, splits and rot (if applicable).

  14. Setting Up Ladders Set-Up and Placement Incorrect set-up is a major cause of ladder accidents. In this section, we will review safe set-up and placement procedures for - Straight and extension ladders Step and platform ladders Fixed ladders

  15. Setting Up Ladders Straight and Extension Ladders If the angle is too low (the base is too far away from the wall), the load capacity of the ladder is reduced. If the angle is too high (the base is too close to the wall), the ladder will be too steep and you increase your change of falling off. It is very important to place the ladder at the correct angle. The distance from the bottom of the ladder to the surface it is leaned against should be one quarter of the ladder’s position height. For example, if a ladder is 4 metres tall, it should be set 1 metre out. The set-up will make an angle of 75 to 80 degrees.

  16. Setting Up Ladders More About Straight and Extension Ladders . . . Raise the extension ladder to the right height and lock both sides. Make sure the ladder is long enough so that you can work standing no higher than the fourth rung from the top. Tie the top of the support points where possible, Having a person holding the bottom of the ladder is only effective for ladders up to 5 metres (15 feet). When using the ladder to gain access to another surface, make sure the top of the ladder extends 12 metre (3 feet) beyond the landing. The ladder will provide hand support for stepping between the ladder and the surface.

  17. Setting Up Ladders Even More About Straight and Extension Ladders . . . Kick out can happen withoutwarning. Always set up a ladder properly so that the feet cannot slide or move. Make sure that the ladder has secure footing. Use ladders with rubber or metal, “slip resistant” feet. Clear ice, snow, mud, sand and debris from work and walking areas. Set the ladder up on a firm, level area. If not possible, nail a cleat to the floor or anchor the feet or bottom of the side rails carefully. Stand on the lower rung to test that the ladder footing is secure.

  18. Setting Up Ladders Step and Platform Ladders With these types of ladders, make sure that the spreader arms are locked in the open position. Make sure that the spreader arms (and the ladder itself) are not bent or damaged. Check the stability. Be sure all feet are on a firm, level and non-slipping surface. Use these ladders only in the open position. Always lock the spreader arms. NEVER use them as straight ladders propped or leaning against a structure. Avoid standing on the top 2 or 3 steps of a step ladder. By being below the top of the ladder you have something to hang on to, and can rest your knees against the ladder for balance. If there is a paint or tool shelf, do not stand on it. It is unstable and can only hold small loads (check the ladder safety manual for the maximum shelf capacity). Keep your body centred between the side rails. Do not overreach.

  19. Setting Up Ladders

  20. Setting Up Ladders Articulating and Other Ladders With trestle, extension and articulated ladders, be sure to set them up and use them according to manufacturer’s instructions.

  21. Setting Up Ladders Platform Ladders Platform ladders, as well as towers, scaffold cradles and other mobile elevated work platforms provide ways to work at heights that also have - Flat, suitably-sized platforms on which to stand Built-in barriers or railings Good stability Be sure that the ladder is the right length for the job. Always use the brakes or rubber caps to stop movement.

  22. Setting Up Ladders Fixed Ladders When using a fixed ladder, check closely and carefully for damage. Look for - Loose, worn or damaged rungs or side rails Corroded, or broken, or loose anchors. Bolts can rust and deterioration of the building concrete will also weaken the anchor point. Fixed ladders should be inspected on a regular, scheduled basis by a competent person. The inspector of the fixed ladder must wear fall protection that is properly anchored to the building.

  23. Setting Up Ladders More About Fixed Ladders In Ontario, safety requirements for fixed access ladders are found in the health care sector specific safety regulations of the Occupational Health & Safety Act including – Ont. Reg 851 Industrial Establishments, Section 18 Ont. Reg 67/93 Health Care and Residential Facilities, Section 41 Fall protection such as rope grabs and cable systems is highly recommended to prevent falls from fixed access ladders. Fixed ladders must be installed according to specific standards or requirements. This includes The Ministry of Labour Engineering Data Sheet 2-04: Fixed Access Ladders and Ont. Reg 851 Industrial Establishments, Section 18 Ont. Reg 67/93 Health Care and Residential Facilities, Section 41.

  24. Setting Up Ladders REMEMBER . . . ALWAYS check for defects before using. If any ladder is found to be defective, do not use it. Tag “out of service” and tell your supervisor immediately. Before setting up, using or working from a ladder, ALWAYS check for overhead power lines and other electrical hazards. NEVER use aluminum ladders near live electrical equipment or wires.

  25. Setting Up Ladders When setting up your ladder . . . Set the ladder on a firm, level surface Secure the base and top against movement Make sure that the area around the base is clear of unstable material and debris When the ladder will be used for a period of time, it is recommended that the immediate area be barricaded with high visibility or barrier tape Do not leave ladders unattended where others can climb them. Note: Dust, sand or dirt on the floor or working surface can cause the ladder feet to slide. Make sure that the surface and the ladder feet are clean.

  26. Safe Ladder Use Setting Up .. . Make sure that rails on ladders extend at least 1 metre (3 feet) above the landing. The ladder allows for secure grip when stepping on and off the surface. Set straight or extension ladders 30 centimetres (1 foot) out for every 120 centimetres (4 feet). Do not place ladders on flexible or moveable surfaces. Do not work on adders in windy or bad weather. REMEMBER: Fall protection is required When working above 3 metres (10 feet).

  27. Safe Ladder Use Remember . . . Never erect ladders on boxers, carts, tables, scaffold platforms, man lifts, vehicles or other unstable surfaces to extend reach. Use longer ladders. NEVER use ladders horizontally as scaffold planks or runways, or for any other purpose for which they were not designed. Do not set up ladders in doorways, passageways, driveways or any location where they can be struck or knocked over. With long, awkward or heavy ladders, get help setting up in order to avoid injury from over-exertion. Raise and lower ladders from the ground. Make sure that locking hooks are secure before climbing. Keep the minimum overlap between sections of an extension ladder (as stated on the ladder label).

  28. Safe Ladder Use Climbing Up and Down ALWAYS face the ladder when climbing up or down and while working. Maintain 3-point contact when climbing up or down. Have two hands and one foot, OR two feet and one hand, on the ladder at all times.

  29. Safe Ladder Use Working from a Ladder Keep appropriate footwear clean of mud, grease, or Any loose or slippery material which could cause loss of footing. Keep your centre of gravity between the side rails. As a guide to avoid overreaching, your belt buckle should never be outside of the side rails. Do not “walk”, “bounce”, “hop”, or “jump” a ladder. Climb down and reposition the ladder correctly. NEVER carry tools or materials in your hands when climbing. Use a hoist rope or tool belt instead.

  30. Safe Ladder Use Remember . . . If you feel dizzy or panicky, drape your arms over a rung and rest your head on another rung or the side rail. Rest and then climb slowly. Stand no higher than the third or fourth rung from the top. Maintain knee contact for balance. ALWAYS maintain a minimum 3-point contact. When working 3 metres (10 feet) or more above the ground or floor, you are required to wear a safety harness with the lanyard tied off to a suitable anchor point. Hold onto the rungs when climbing a ladder, not the side rails. If you slip, holding onto the rungs is easier than grabbing the rails.

  31. Storage • Store ladders where they are protected from the • weather. • Hang portable ladders horizontally on racks. Place • support hooks every 2 metres (6 feet) to prevent • sagging. • Keep wooden ladders in a well ventilated space, away • from dampness and excessive heat. • Do not expose fibreglass ladders to excessive • temperatures above 93 degrees Celsius • (200 degrees Fahrenheit) or excessive sunlight. • UV light and weather can degrade the plastic resin.

  32. Storage Transporting Ladders on a Vehicle Put padding on the racks to reduce wear and road shocks. Tie ladders to each support point to reduce damage. Tie orange or red flags on ladders that are longer than the vehicle.

  33. Responsibilities • Everyone has responsibilities for ensuring Workplace Safety under the Occupational Health & Safety Act . . . • Supervisors must ensure that – • Ladders are CSA approved • Damaged ladders are removed from service, • repaired or disposed of • Ladders used are adequate for the job • All employees are trained to know what ladder • to use when, and how to use ladders safely • The employee must – • Follow all established safe practices when using • ladders • Not use damaged or unsafe ladders • Report damaged or unsafe ladders immediately • Use the proper ladder for the job

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